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I'm looking for a generic term/process that explains how we can make a closed-loop control system. There's a pretty good definition over on Electronics Tutorials: A Closed-loop Control System, also known as a feedback control system is a control system which uses the concept of an open loop system as its forward path but has one or more feedback loops (...


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Microprocessors. The measured value from a sensor (either an analog voltage or any other digital processed value) provides the microprocessor with the current output of the system. Internally, this has stored the desired setpoint, and computes the next control input by indeed taking the difference of the output and the setpoint using any kind of arithmetric ...


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The arduino does impose some limits. But a classical frequency identification is build from a few steps: As the other comments already suggest, the design of a suitable input. As mentioned, a sinusoidal input (I actually recommend multisine) is suitable to accurately identify the response of a few frequencies. White noise or band-limited white noise can ...


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The input is a scaling factor between 1 and 0 that is multiplied with the area of the valve. Do note that for most valves, putting the valve half open does not mean the throughput area is half the total area, so you might want to link that in an equation. $$\frac{dM_{gas}}{dt} = u(t)A_{valve}\rho V_f$$ $$0\leq u(t) \leq 1$$ Which also instantly leads to an ...


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Typically, the output of the controller is the input to the valve. Depending on the sophistication of the valve model, it could be either the voltage or the valve opening in % or mm (or similar).


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What you are seeing in the video is a vacuum generator/vacuum ejector/aspirator. Figure 1: Venturi effect (source: wikipedia) It uses the principle of the Venturi effect. I.e. that for steady, incompressible, inviscid when there is an increase of speed there is a drop in static pressure. This is mathematically expressed as: $$p_1-p_2 =\frac{\rho}{2} (v_2^2- ...


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