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Datasheet says you can't put a voltage lower than VSS on any pin: This is because there are reverse biased diodes between the most pins and VDD and VSS. If you apply a negative voltage the diode to VSS becomes forward biased and current will flow. The forward drop of the diode before it turns on to conduct is about -0.6 V. Applying a voltage more negative ...


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All the water moving around inside your plant was originally set into motion with pumps designed to get the right amount of water to the right point in the plumbing in the right amount of time. Imagine now that we insert power-extraction turbines in the flow through those pipes. This extracts the energy content of the moving water and leaves no dynamic head ...


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Not an answer per se. But worth a revisit. The new generation of GPU cards can run at very high temperatures, though whilst gaming the temps vary, another area that displays constant temperatures is whilst crypto mining, where cards can run between 80c to 90c, since the load on the card is always 100% the temperatures stay consistent, depending on the clock ...


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A Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (SCIM) is an asynchronous machine. As in the frequency and poles determines synchronous speed and the SCIM rotates at a slightly slower speed to produce torque. $$n_S = \frac {120 f}{p} = \frac {120 \times 60Hz}{6} = 1,200 rpm$$ Synchronous speed is 1,200 rpm, but motor speed depends on load torque. If the slip is 5%, motor ...


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For starters connect PCx signal wires as below to the following switches Switch 1 wire to PC1 Switch 2 wire to PC4 Switch 3 wire to PC1, PC2 and PC4 Switch 4 wire to PC2 and PC8 Position No 1,4,7 and A Switch 1 Position 1 => 0mm, program next Position 2 => 100mm, program next Position 3 => 0mm Switch 2 Position 4 => 0mm, program next Position 5 =...


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I'm a little late to the party here, but it's worth mentioning (if only for anyone that finds this in the future) that IP levels don't stack beyond IPX6. Therefore something that's IP67 doesn't necessarily meet the criteria for water ingress levels 1-6. The same goes for IP68. Another note of worth is that IP67 & IP68 allow for some ingress of water, but ...


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It is possible that there is a short circuit somewhere between the heat sink, the peltier slab, and the fan housing. Heat sink grease is electrically nonconductive but if a direct path gets formed through it then the device would stop working. I suggest you take the entire thing apart, clean it up, and test the fan by itself, the fan with the heatsink, the ...


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Figure 1 (a) Simple. (b) Still simple. Figure 1a might work. It relies on the relay being a little slow to energise. Meanwhile you get an output pulse until RLY1 picks up. If that's too quick then replace RLY2 with a 12 V relay, add in R1 with a value equal to the coil's resistance and add in some capacitance to cause a pick-up delay. The time constant will ...


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A three-phase system has one neutral wire and three phase wires. The line-to-line voltage is the voltage between any two of the three phase wires in your three-phase system. It can be measured via a voltmeter in VAC mode with leads clipped to any two of the three phase wires. If you are concerned with converting between line-to-line and line-to-neutral ...


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Could you get it to work, sure. There are dozens of ways to turn heat into energy. Could you get it to work at scale and cost effectively? Almost certainly not. There's just not enough energy in heated air to do much, and the capital costs of the system break the effort. This is another entry into the "Why can't Stirling engines give us almost free ...


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