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The three main drawbacks for a high bandwidth are: Noise amplification. The higher the bandwidth, the more you are going to act on high frequent stuff in your error signal. Noise typically dominates at the higher frequency and therefore the system will start reacting to it. Therefore, the noise will not be rejected / ignored but amplified. Robustness. In ...


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If the battery has a lead warning on it, its chemistry is lead/lead sulfate and both the plates in the electrolyte and the jumpers between cells are made of lead.


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I'll answer the questions in reverse order. If the laser beam draws like a pencil, how is the laser guiding mirror that directs the laser beam onto the drum able to move so fast that a page is printed every few seconds? Figure 1. A simplified drawing of the laser and mirror arrangement. Source: How Stuff Works. The mirror in many cases just ...


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Dynamic braking is used in combination with the air brakes in the rest of the train. As such it is capable of only capturing a portion of the kinetic energy that needs to be dissipated in order to stop the entire train. For carefully-applied braking, the "jack-knifing" collapse of a "compressed" railway car string is avoidable.


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Below is the equation for $I_c$ $I_c=\beta I_b$ $\beta$ is unique for the transistor. The value can be found in the transistor datasheet BC107B In datasheet the parameter $\beta$ is usually labeled as $h_{FE}$ The $\beta$ value for BC107B from the datasheet is In short you are creating a graph similar to the image below for the BC107B transistor ...


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Ideal transformer - transformation ratio $$\alpha = \frac {V_1} {V_2} = \frac {N_1} {N_2} = \frac {I_2} {I_1}$$ Apparent Power: $$S_1 = S_2$$ Real transformer: $$\alpha = \frac {V_1} {V_2} = \frac {N_1} {N_2}$$ $$S_1 > S_2$$ The kVA rating on transformers deals with the output of the secondary side or $S_2$. There has to be a greater input power (and ...


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You have a chance. This might work as a temporary solution. Figure 1. Switching DLRs off with an NO when headlights are on. How it works: When the ignition is on and the headlights are off the headlamps will provide a low enough resistance to allow the RLY to pick up. The normally open (NC) contact will close and the DLRs will turn on. When the headlamps ...


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This is because for all three of of your choices for the gain the closed loop system is unstable. Namely, for just an integrator as controller the gain should be below 1.5 in order for the closed loop system to be stable and all of your gains are above that.


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