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If you know second-order systems you can always add a time delay to obtain the third order as all real systems have them. Often a Pade approximation is used for a time delay. For the Laplace transform {e^-st} the first order Pade approximation for time delay, t, is (1-t/(2s))/(1+t/(2s)). Time delays always cause degradation of system performance due to delay ...


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