Questions tagged [control-engineering]

Questions about the models and theories of control engineering and the application of control theory to design systems with desired behaviors.

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17 views

Find the overall transfer function of the system given in the following block [closed]

Find the overall transfer function of the system given in the following block
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0answers
26 views

Discrete measurement - continuous observer design

I have to design a controller for the above system where the two pulse generators (red blocks ) are synchronized (measurements are only available at discrete points). However, my understanding is that ...
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1answer
39 views

Tuning Feedforward + PID Controller just with Feedforward Data

Hello there, hope you are all doing well. Right now I am trying to design a Feedforward + PID Controller for KUKA youBot on simulation. Since I do not have the equation of the system, I am trying to ...
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1answer
28 views

Fixed end points optimal control problem

Given two points $(t_0,x(t_0)=x^{0})$ and $(t_1,x(t_1)=x^{1})$ in the $(t,x)$ plane, the objective is to find an optimal trajectory $x^{*}(t)$ such that the cost function \begin{equation}\label{eq:1} ...
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1answer
31 views

Transfer function into block diagram and matrix form

I'm reading a book on Control System Design and running into the same issue I had in Kinematic Design. When things are presented in a format without any numerical examples it just appears as gibberish ...
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1answer
52 views

Shouldn't linear time-invariant systems be called affine time-invariant systems instead?

For a scalar $c$, the function: $$f(x) = cx$$ Is linear in that it satisfies the superposition property. If: $$f(x_1)=cx_1$$ $$f(x_2)=cx_2$$ Then: $$\alpha f(x_1) + \beta f(x_2) = \alpha(cx_1)+\beta(...
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1answer
41 views

Precision of a steeper motor and gears vs multiple motors

We are a student team trying to design a low cost CNC plasma cutting machine. The CNC will be a table with two rails and a bridge moving on them in which the head of the plasma torch will be. Now we ...
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40 views

How do I derive the expression for A plus solenoid and C plus solenoid?

The photo shows the setup.The actual question is " Using the groupings as shown and following our usual notations, which of the Boolean expressions is correct?" I tried working out the ...
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3answers
187 views

Mechanism for controlling the clamping force

I am working on upgrading a research project on wind energy. They are trying to measure the performance of wind blade designs in a small wind tunnel (i.e. their models are relatively small). What they ...
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1answer
36 views

Is there a concept of gain and phase margin for a strictly open-loop transfer function?

I'm new to control systems, and I'm attempting to analyze the stability of an open-loop transfer function. I know that by checking the locations of the poles (and ensuring all poles are in the LHP) I ...
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1answer
59 views

How can I get final value of $V_{out}$ at $t=∞$ in RC circuit?

I can obtain the transfer function in this RC circuit. $$ \frac{V_{out}}{V_{in}} = \frac{1}{(RCs+1)} $$ When $V_{in}$ is set to $10V$, how can I get final value of $V_{out}$ at $t=∞$? I tried to use ...
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38 views

On servo loops bandwidth and tracking

Referring to article https://www.controldesign.com/articles/2018/servo-terminology-makes-a-difference/ I was unable to understand how loop gain influences the noise rejection and tracking. Taking ...
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1answer
49 views

Temperature controller using pt-1000 sensor

I need to control the temperature of a system with high accuracy with error value of $0.1$ degrees celsius +-. I will be using temperature sensor PT-1000. I need to know what would be the best option ...
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37 views

what is the name of this wheel found in toys which rotates freely?

I have tried doing search by image on few popular Internet search engines but could not get it. (sorry, it picked up lot of dust and a bit ugly to see). I want to know the name of such wheel and where ...
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1answer
17 views

Derivation of 2nd order damped rise time

Given the transfer function: $$\frac{\omega_0}{s^2 + 2\omega_0\zeta s + \omega_0^2}$$ How would you derive the rise time of the system from 0% SS to 100% SS. $$t_r = \frac{\pi - \arccos{\frac{1}{\zeta}...
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2answers
13 views

Does it make sense to have a pressure and flow controller on a single closed line?

I have seen P&IDs in which a single line has both a pressure and flow control valve. Based on my understanding of Bernoulli's equation however this doesn't make sense to me - because ultimately ...
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1answer
34 views

Differential Equation for: Locking a laser's frequency with a PI controller

I think I have a good understanding of differential equations, so I would like to first try to understand my system in terms of differential equations before transforming my system into the more ...
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33 views

Advice wanted on time to digital converters for speed of sound in fluids

I'm using the speed of sound to analyze the composition of aqueous solutions with sound velocities between around 1000 and 1400 meters per second. It's a process control application with continuous ...
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36 views

Research of transients in nonlinear systems with linear dynamic links

I am having difficulties of this nature. There is a nonlinear system of the following type: I need to analyze analytically the transient process in such a system. The analytical study of the ...
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1answer
23 views

How to find the 'reaction speed' required in a valve for a certain application

I know this is answerable but I'm not sure I know where to start: You have a pump (constant volume flow) supplying the primary side of a heat exchanger with hot water (flow). The temperature of the ...
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1answer
16 views

Regressor-passivity robot control. Help with simulation (Simulink/Matlab)

I'm trying to simulate a 2DOF planar pendulum with a regresor-passivity control, the thing is I've been having some issues with my simulation, I'm using Simulink, but in theory I know my control law ...
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1answer
47 views

Block reduction need someone to check my work

I tried to solve this block but I am not sure if the end result is any good, some feedback would be nice.
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1answer
42 views

Crossflow HX tube and fin, derive Tout hot side as a function of mdot hot side in

Apparatus: Crossflow Tube and fin HX. (liquid-to-air Intercooler), Hot Side: Tube side, gas flowing internally Cold Side: fin side, water flowing in crossflow Goal: Generate an environment in "...
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15 views

How to enforce 0 yaw in (6DOF) system described by Euler angles

I am attempting to reduce the equations: $\ddot{\alpha} = T^{-1}(\dot{w} - \dot{T}\dot{\psi})$ $I_{xx}\dot{\omega}_x = (I_{yy}-I_{zz})\omega_y\omega_z +M_x$ $I_{yy}\dot{\omega}_y = (I_{xx}-I_{zz})\...
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1answer
26 views

Adding phase error to a system based on phase margin

I have a MIMO transfer function and referring to a research work, I have found a phase margin for this MIMO system. I want to check and see the system blow when a phase error greater than the phase ...
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5answers
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Would a centrifugal flyweight governor system slow down the descent of an object that is free falling down to the Earth's surface? (Revised design) [closed]

I am wondering if rotating flyweights would slow down the descent of a object that is free falling down to the Earth's surface. Please reference the conceptual drawing below: This drawing is showing ...
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0answers
9 views

Specificities of satellite AOCS (Attitude and Orbit Control System) engineering

I'm still a graduate student in aerospace enginneering, in Europe. I specialised in control systems, and I'm interested in working in the satellite manufacturing industry. I'm especially curious about ...
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1answer
47 views

How do I determine the output equation in the state-space representation?

In the state space representation, the state equation for a linear time-invariant system is: $$ \dot{\mathbf{x}}(t) = \mathbf{A}\mathbf{x}(t)+\mathbf{B}\mathbf{u}(t) $$ This state equation can be ...
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36 views

How to make a drone apple picker

I want to make a drone system which can recognise when fruit has dropped in our orchard, and pick it up and put it in a basket before theyve rotted on the lawn. I'm thinking buy a drone off amazon, ...
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1answer
63 views

Is there any other controller than PID Controller?

I have been given a Project to search for a controller having better transient response than PID Controller. I searched but I didn't find any research paper on it. All are talking about improving PID'...
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73 views

Can someone explain how the output of this control system is derived?

I understand equation (1), but I really don't see the connection between equation (2) and the picture. For starters, shouldn't the $b_0$ constant be multiplied by $$net(n)-(a_1 \cdot net(n - 1) + a_2 \...
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2answers
54 views

Definition of a 'manipulated variable' in process control - what is a manipulated variable exactly?

I've gathered a lot of different details online - trying to understand exactly what they mean by 'manipulated variable'. So I only decided to finally ask about it here. In one source - eg. at this ...
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1answer
39 views

How to decrease Nitrogen gas consumption in Iron & Steel Plant? [closed]

I need to decrease nitrogen gas consumption in iron & steel plant. Currently it's not possible to measure every dot from steel mill to determine real usage so they use what air separation unit ...
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1answer
70 views

Adapting PID controller parameters using expert rules

I use the following equation to calculate a control signal of a time-discrete PID controller: $$ u(k) = u(k-1) + K_{R} \cdot \left(1+ \frac{T_{0}}{2 \cdot T_{I} }+ \frac{T_{D}}{T_{0}}\right) \cdot e(k)...
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65 views

Gain and Phase Margins from Bode Plot

What's the interpretation of the margins when the curve of magnitude never crosses 0 dB or the phase curve never crosses the -180º? For example: $$G(s) = \frac{s+20}{(s+1)(s+7)(s+50)}$$ I know that ...
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1answer
53 views

Nyquist Stability Theorem and Clockwise/Counter Clockwise Encirclements

According to argument principle, if a contour encircles a number of poles and zeros of a transfer function, the number of origin encirclements can be deduced by : ...
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2answers
78 views

A clarifying question on Lasalle invariance principle

Given a nonlinear system \begin{equation} \dot{x}=f(x),~x(0)=x_0 \tag{1} \end{equation} where $f\in{\mathcal{C}^{1}}:D\to\mathbb{R}^{n}$. The Lasalle invariance theorem statement goes as follows: Let $...
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Monitoring Connectivity on ZigBee

I am trying to figure out some ways in which a ZigBee network can be monitored. As is the case in any network, here we have a central coordinator and several slaves joined, however, there seems to be ...
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2answers
52 views

controllability matrix of a state space system - determinant

For state space systems, there is a test for 'controllability' involving finding the determinant of a 'controllability' matrix. The instructions for the test is typically to see if the determinant is ...
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Why does my motor model match the actual data in transient but not steady state response?

I have created a model of a DC Servo motor using electromechanical system modeling. I simulated the motor in Simulink (MATLAB) and compared the data with data obtained from a real motor having similar ...
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1answer
56 views

Limitations of LTI systems & control

I'm trying to think of limitations or disadvantages of LTI systems in control theory, however, I can't think of many. The only one I can think of is that not every system is an LTI system. Linear time-...
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1answer
69 views

designing compensator with certain specification

Ηere is an open-loop transfer function and specifications for compensator design. I defined the required poles and defined the angles according to the normal procedure of the root locus method and ...
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56 views

Is the viscous friction coefficient of a BLDC motor dependent on the system inertia?

I have to model the required torque to move a system composed of several mechanical parts such that this system performs a motion profile. It is a Maxon drive composed of an ECX Speed 16L BLDC micro-...
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3answers
60 views

Bandwidth vs Capacity

Two questions on wireless transmission, packed into one. First: I am confused about the meaning of the term 'Bandwidth' in a wireless transmission environment. The two most common definitions I could ...
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1answer
64 views

Zeroing a ventilator's volume measurement in the face of drifty sensors

I'm a software engineer working with http://respira.works to build an open-source ventilator for COVID-19. Notably, I'm not a controls person or a hardware person, so please forgive me. Background ...
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1answer
43 views

Why is there a delta for locally stable in the sense of lyapunov?

Why does this definition (screenshotted above) for locally stable i.s.L. require a $\delta$ term? Why not just say, something is locally stable i.s.L. if "for any ball of size $\epsilon$ around the ...
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3answers
193 views

What are these rotary to linear movements called?

I’d like to know what the below movement mechanisms are called so I can better research them and incorporate them into my own designs. They are both quite similar, they are from rotary electrical ...
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2answers
61 views

Control of a nonlinear static MIMO System

I am currently writing my master thesis and trying to design a controller for my system. However, the system is somewhat unconventional. It has a large number of inputs and outputs, is static, non-...
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2answers
57 views

What is the easiest way to regulate the speed of a falling object?

I want to design a system that allows a 1kg metal brick to fall under gravity at variable speeds. The brick initial position is 20cm above a flat table. I want to have control on the duration (to ...
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1answer
74 views

Help understanding a control system represented by coefficients of theta?

I've been working with control systems and transfer functions recently, but I've come across a format that I haven't seen before using coefficients of theta, and I can't find any information about it. ...

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