25

As Solar Mike's answer says, crude oil is viscous - too viscous to easily pump. Crude oil has a "pour point:" the lowest temperature where it will flow under gravity. Heating the crude oil keeps it above the pour point, so it can be pumped. With the large volume of oil in a tanker, it makes more sense to keep it fluid, rather than letting it cool down ...


13

The total length of the pipeline has little to do with the length that oil can be pumped in a pipe. This is because a pipeline is broken into many smaller segments between pumping stations. Stations are conveniently located either where required (see discussion below) or where another pipeline joins in. Pipelines are rarely one single pipe between point A ...


8

There are so many misrepresentations in the references it is difficult to answer. Basically, crude oil in tankers is not heated. If viscosity is too high for effective pumping, the most likely action is to add a low viscosity oil. This will be done at the crude source. A very simple distillation "topping plant", will separate light material from a crude to ...


7

Lighters usually use Butane. Gas bottles use some or all Propane. Propane pressures are MUCH higher. A plastic 'tank' filled with Propane would probably explode. As size increases the container strength must be increased disproportionately. As temperatures increase pressures rise FAR faster than changes in absolute temperature. We understand from ...


7

Others here have covered why tankers get heated. A related topic is why salt caverns and other deep underground storage are not heated. It's not that they can't be heated - it's that they don't need to be heated. It turns out that deep caverns are rather warm already... in most places (away from tectonic boundaries which aren't great for long-terms storage ...


4

Re. 'maintains its quality' aka, the good stuff. What is the most important source of natural gas? Coal, oil or other? "Above the maximum temperature the oil is converted to natural gas through the process of thermal cracking." "with nothing acting as a capstone it [will lose, and will continually lose], all its gas." If it's already 'cracked', it has to ...


4

They heat the oil to make it easier to pump for off-loading otherwise it is too viscous.


3

The difference is in the drag coefficient. Typical drag coefficient of the 50's cars have been in the range of 0.38 to 0.42 or so. typical drag coefficient of modern cars even the ones not renowned for their streamlined body is ranging from 0.26 to 0.34. drag is the retarding force exerted on moving bodies by the media they are moving in. it tries to slow ...


3

1) In an engineering context efficiency has a very specific meaning ie it is the ratio between the energy you put into a system and the useful work that you get out. In itself this doesn't tell you very much about the amount of pollution produced in the process. Fuel economy is a bit different as it considers the overall energy(fuel) use of the car as a ...


3

Well first and foremost, refiners are a business so they must make the decisions that make them the most money. Considering this, lets think about cracking and isomerization via catalysis. The refiner is going to require additional reactors, piping and pumping, most likely additional distillation columns, catalyst loading etc. The energy alone to do ...


2

Typically it sounds like you need a positive displacement flow meter as you have a viscous fluid in the process and they are not very suitable to turbine style flow meters. Positive displacement flow meters come in a wide range of fluid viscosity, but there is a series of questions that needs to be answered before you choose the right one. The best thing ...


2

Any rock expansion would hinder oil recovery due to a reduction in void space either between grains or in fissures. For oil to flow more readily it needs connected void spaces in which to collect and then flow through. The more tightly packed a rock is the less the ability of oil to flow. Oil flows well in porous media like sand and sandstone due to the ...


2

There are a number of online reference. I entered "dictionary oil terms" into a search engine & came up with these as an example: The Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary Glossary of Oil and Gas Terms - Bruin Glossary of Oil and Natural Gas Terms Oil and Gas Glossary of Terms for Production Financing OPIS Glossary of Terms Oil & Gas Dictionary of ...


2

There are 2 general reasons for flaring; In a refinery or chemical plant for safety and at well site for economics - subject to Dept of Interior rules. Refineries and chemical plants have a large number of safety valves , most are automatic . Just like the safety valve you have on your hot water heater : the hot water heater vents hot water outside , no ...


2

I think the data is not available to the public, atleast not for free. Check this out this link. Single user licence: €6 150 Multi-user licence 2-5 users: €12 300 Multi-user licence 6-10 users: €18 500 Multi-user licence > 10 users: €24 600 Global Licence: €61 500 Also the data chart in the IEA website to which you have provided the ...


2

The total crude throughput is domestic production plus net crude imports. All of the crude gets refined. So if 49% of the total crude is refined in PADD III, and more than 49% of domestic production is in PADD III, and more than 49% of net imports arrive at PADD III, It doesn't matter what the ratio of imports to domestic production is, the total amount ...


2

I worked in petroleum my whole career and never heard this bureaucratic double speak - PADD. No real world implication, just a mechanism to justify some bureaucratic salaries.Oil is relatively fungible and the US has extensive pipeline systems and barge system and ,in a pinch, can even resort to rail.So the oil goes where someone is willing to pay.


2

This is an interesting subject, although its mostly an opinion rather that anything else. TL;DR: Oil industry is certainly facing challenges and its probably on its way out, but there still a long way until it completely phases out I'll start with the a quote from eia.gov The share of U.S. total energy consumption that originated from fossil fuels has fallen ...


2

Because the ocean can be very cold As MartyMcGyver discusses, underground storage does not need to be heated. Tankers, however, are sitting in water, which (apart from the salt) has the highest thermal absorption of any substance; that is to say, the worst possible insulator. The US Pacific coast is some of the coldest seawater in the continental U.S. (...


1

I think this is a situation of "the devil is in the details', and of course, cost. In the US, gas from a few wells would not likely be of sufficient volume; but several/many wells could be combined (detail = pipeline plan and control). There are wells, mostly Middle East that do have enough flare gas. As a point of reference the last local power gas ...


1

The precise definition of Oilmarket cube will be explained elsewhere, earlier most likely, but it will be a unit that is used to compare sources much like kWh can be used for gas as a cubic foot of gas varies its heating power with temperature. It could be 1m^3 or 1000m^3 but it will be an amount stated.


1

Air barrel means oil pipeline capacity which is booked or contracted by an oil company while they already know they can not deliver that volume of oil. Basically they over book the line. Alberta pipeline in order to maintain the line or repair accidents has to cut down the flow of oil, so the oil companies overbook to be able to have guaranteed delivery of ...


1

“By-pass” generally means to take an alternative path or route around something, so could be a village or a valve or a flow meter. Sometimes meters have a by-pass arrangement with 3 valves so that they can be replaced without stopping the flow.


1

To begin with, gas/petrol filling stations may or may not be located at one site for a long period of time. Dealing with a disused pipeline for a closed station will be a problem. Continually extending the pipeline network will cause disruptions. One of the main issues, is like water distribution pipelines, pipelines for oil/petroleum products can burst, ...


1

There is a wide world of plastics, and a wider world of corrosive fluids to pit them against. Then within each plastic are different resins, brands, each with unique manufacturing methods. Some plastic resins have actually been formulated to be more corrosion resistant against one type of chemical and less against another while still being chemically ...


1

A thermistor will work fine. Most are epoxy dipped, and your test is for a relatively short period of time. A theromcouple would work well also, but they take more supporting electronics for signal amplification. As long as your wires running to your thermistor are not to long, it will work great for this temperature range. 10k NTC thermistor with lug 10k ...


1

I would use a thermocouple in the gasoline to a data-logger. You can get simple data-logger from omega (Temperature & Humidity Data Loggers) It will be safe to put in the gasoline, just be sure to use a good fume extraction hood that is suited for combustable vapours and keep all metal in contact with the gas grounded and bonded to prevent sparks.


1

My understanding: Petrol engines produce far more carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless and highly toxic gas. This makes running petrol engines indoors far more dangerous than running diesel engines indoors. Outdoors however carbon monoxide is not so bad. It's lighter than air so it won't tend to persist near ground level. Diesel ...


1

Depending on where you are, "regular" automotive fuel is anything between 85 and 95. However a number of, say, 95, does not mean it's a mixture of 95% octane and 5% heptane. It merely means that the fuel has knocking resistance properties similar to this mixture. The actual composition can be any mixture of isomeric hydrocarbons. As the number that denotes ...


1

Directionally, yes. Treat it exactly like a compressibility term in the material balance equation (pressure drop and temperature rise both cause the grain material to expand). Second-order effects mentioned by the last contributor (e.g. permeability reduction from pore throat contraction) would need to be taken into account, but that's a productivity term, ...


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