14

This will at least depend on the: Rate of Cooling Magnetic field strength Exact composition The magnetic field will alter the microstructure as you can read in, for example, Yudong Zhang, Nathalie Gey, Changshu He, Xiang Zhao, Liang Zuo, Claude Esling, High temperature tempering behaviors in a structural steel under high magnetic field, Acta Materialia, ...


11

Use Google's define:<item to look up> feature. block diagram noun: block diagram; plural noun: block diagrams a diagram showing in schematic form the general arrangement of the parts or components of a complex system or process, such as an industrial apparatus or an electronic circuit. flow chart noun: flow chart; plural noun: flow charts; noun: ...


9

As of the 2013 edition of ASME B16.5, the scope section explains: This Standard states values in both SI (Metric) and U.S. Customary units. As an exception, diameter of bolts and flange bolt holes are expressed in inch units only. These systems of units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the U.S. Customary units are ...


7

Are any designs based solely on data from trial and error used in critical mainstream engineering? Usually not. And the reason is that trial and error is expensive and time consuming. As engineers, we are always working on projects with a budget and a deadline. Take your rocket example. Rockets are expensive. For sake of argument, let's just say it's $1 ...


6

The choice of time step sets the bandwidth of the control loop. The highest unity gain frequency (UGF) you can hope to achieve in the closed loop is the Nyquist frequency $$ f_N=\frac12 f_s=\frac{1}{2\,\Delta t} $$ where $\Delta t$ is the sample time. Practically, the UGF will be somewhat lower than this. This means that above this frequency your feedback ...


6

Buy a depth finder! As @SF pointed out, you can use an ultrasonic device to measure the depth of the water. These devices work by sending out an acoustic impulse and recording the return signals. The acoustic impulse reflects off of any density boundaries in the medium. By measuring the time for the signal to come back the distance from the transducer ...


6

I would guess that the discrepancy is down to rounding fractional inch sizes to decimal inches ie 2.38 is not exactly 2 3/8" Note that 2.375 (two and three quarter eighth inches) is 60.325mm


5

$\frac{1}{22.4}\frac{\mathrm{mol}}{\mathrm{L}}$ is only valid for standard conditions. Use the ideal gas law to calculate the concentration for your conditions. $s \equiv$ standard conditions $2 \equiv$ your conditions $p_s V_s = n_s R T_s$ $\frac{p_s V_s}{n_s T_s} = R = const = \frac{p_2 V_2}{n_2 T_2}$ $\frac{n_2}{V_2} = \frac{p_2 T_s n_s}{p_s T_2 V_s}$...


5

What is the cause of this static charge in the grinding process? My thought is that the coffee grinder is essentially acting like a Van de Graaff generator. Since the coffee maker likely has a plastic frame, rests (most likely) on rubber feet, and the electrical wiring (most likely) is insulated from the grinding mechanism, you have the potential for ...


4

If you want this automated, probably Rachet's solution is better; for a more low-tech approach for periodic manual testing, a wide, flat weight on a rope will work; lower it below water surface, let it rest on top of the sediment; the moment the rope goes loose, you've touched the sediment surface. For a more hi-tech solution, an ultrasound distance sensor ...


4

You can put a rod with a blades on the bottom rotate it along the bottom. when the resistance is high then the sediment has reached above the blades and it is time to clean the tank.


4

Annealing is a heat-treatment process for stress-relief of a material. Annealing facilitates reduction of internal stresses and total elastic energy stored in inter-atomic bonds within a treated material. The term is used for appropriate heat-treatments of metals, ceramic glasses, and high-performance polymers. An example would be a cold-rolled steel billet ...


4

A "force" in a PLC is the act of forcing a memory bit on or off from the PLC programming software. It is used exclusively for testing. Forcing a bit on or off over-rides all other PLC logic. You can think of it like both setting it and making it read only. "set" a bit is also an option with most PLCs and is also useful for testing. It differs from "force" in ...


3

Your approach is wrong because the left hand side represents the derivative of the composition of two time dependent functions. You completely ignored that fact and started cancelling terms. I try to give a simpler example: $\frac{d 4x^3}{dx} = kx^2 \Leftrightarrow 12x^2=kx^2 \Leftrightarrow 12=k$ This is not the same as $\frac{d 4x}{dx} = k \...


3

Knowing the context here might be useful. These terms have nothing to do with each other. Annealing is warming a metal, usually steel, to give it a soft, easy shaped type of crystalline structure. Curing is the process of letting a metal sit to work out internal stresses that may have formed during a heat treatment. Sintering is reducing a metal to a ...


3

It sounds like the problematic solids level is/can be known ahead of time. Assuming this is the case, you could install a vibratory apparatus at the bottom of the tank, and some sort of acoustic sensor at the level of interest (probably several of them positioned around the tank wall would work best). Since tranverse/secondary waves don't travel through ...


3

I've worked quite a bit with vacuum pumps in the past and they certainly could get your slurry out of the tank however a complete rig can run in the $10,000 range. Another less expensive option is an airlift pump. This is nothing more than a tube that has compressed air blowing through it which in turn 'pushes' the slurry to the top of the pipe. It does so ...


3

In ambient pressure, ethane boiling point is -89 °C; ethylene boiling point is -103.7 °C. Water, to act as efficient coolant needs to be liquid, so above 0 °C. You're not going to condense ethane vapor at ambient pressure with coolant at 89 degrees above its boiling point! Your two options are to either use a much colder - and more expensive and difficult ...


3

Contact an engineering firm with experience designing and building such systems and vessels to code. Otherwise, you're just building a bomb.


3

I think the key information is that the liquid is saturated. This means any reduction in pressure will lead to partial vaporization and two phase flow. For heat tranfer best overall heat transfer coefficient is always direct to liquid rather than vapor. You still will have vaporization once the saturated liquid once it enters the heater, but the effect ...


3

In perfectly stagnate gas systems, transport of a component through a gas collapses to diffusion of the component through the gas. In this case, $k_L a \propto (D / \delta)^n$ where $D$ is diffusion coefficient, $\delta$ is a film thickness, and $n$ can be correlated or derived from first principles (typically $n \rightarrow 1$ in film theories). References ...


3

There is quite a bit to unpack here, so I may need to deconstruct your question a bit. Your question is surrounding the fouling rate of a Shell & Tube (S&T) heat exchanger which I will get to, but there are a few things with respect to the RO that must be addressed. If you have sand in the feedwater to your RO, you have much bigger issues than heat ...


2

While designing a relief the valve flow rate is the deciding variable. To calculate its value in two phase flow different models can be used like HEM, drift flux, separated flow, etc. For this particular application (where two phase flow is because pressure drop across valve) HEM is best suited. I would also suggest to check for choking in the two-phase ...


2

When there is a change of temperature of the reactor contents, which sensor detects the change first? The quicker the effects of a change can be detected, the more responsive the control system and (generally speaking) the smoother the control. Following this principle using whichever sensor is closest to the jacket inlet is preferred, as it will reduce the ...


2

You might want to look up the the "Bond Work Index". It's an empirical method for understanding the energy required to achieve certain amounts of comminution (think P80) for a given method and mineral.


2

It all depends on the sterilization level you want to achieve. As you say, you would need to know the death kinetics parameters, or equivalently the log-decimal reduction time (D) and how it changes with temperature (Z). As sterilization is a problem that takes place almost everywhere in food industry, a standard sterilisation cycle lasts for 30 min. at 121 ...


2

In terms of bed capacity, dry gas—0% moisture, or as close as you can get—is generally optimal. Section 12.4 of Air Pollution Control (Cooper & Alley, 4th ed.) characterizes the impact of several factors on the theoretical equilibrium saturation capacity of a fixed-bed adsorption system: Thickness of the adsorption zone (in which the sorbent is not ...


2

Time Constant and systems A second order LTI system in Laplace domain: $\hspace{2.5em}$ $H(s) = \frac{{\omega_{n}}^{2}}{s^{2}+\zeta\omega s+{\omega_{n}}^{2}}$ The solution is: $\hspace{2.5em}$ $h(t) = \frac{{\omega_{n}}}{\sqrt{1-\zeta^{2}}}e^{-\zeta {\omega_{n}} t}sin({\omega_{n}} \sqrt{1-\zeta^{2}}t)$ Note that the time constant depends on the product of ...


2

We have a fair share of questions about how to calculate maximum speed, but the fact remains that this is extremely hard calculation to make. See a mass will continue to accelerate until the losses are equal to the gains. Estimating the losses is hard, if not impossible in practice. That is because friction of your system is extremely hard to predict. ...


2

For a low tech and somewhat primitive method, given a metal tank with access to the bottom you could simply tap on the outside of the tank with a metal or other hard object (not hard enough to dent or damage it, just enough to generate a sound.) Start at the bottom and begin tapping repeatedly moving upwards until you hear the echoing sound you are making ...


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