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We define reactions uniquely depending on the reactants and products. Here are examples related to your question. Formation: Na(s) + (1/2)Cl$_2$(g) $\rightarrow$ NaCl(s) Lattice Formation: Na$^+$(g) + Cl$^-$(g) $\rightarrow$ NaCl(s) Solution: NaCl(s) $\rightarrow$ NaCl(aq) Hydration: Na$^+$(g) $\rightarrow$ Na$^+$(aq) Atomization: Na(s) $\rightarrow$ Na(g) A ...


5

Nylons are a class of polymers formed from di-acid and di-amine monomers. The amine groups bond with the acid groups to form amide groups, end to end. The resulting amide groups have a positive charge at the amine hydrogen, and negative charge at the acid double-bond oxygen. The result is a polymer with periodic polar moments across the chain. The polar ...


4

The easiest way to vaporize a metal is to create a filament of the metal. Heat the filament in the vacuum to its sublimation (vaporization) temperature. Alternatively, when the metal cannot be shaped into a filament, the metal can be encased in or painted on a "wrapper" metal. Commercial evaporators for alkali metals are designed this way. The wrapper is a ...


3

If the heating element is constantly at 100°C, there is no way it can cause the room can get warmer than 100°C. Otherwise, perpetual motion machines would be possible. If you meant the heating element is providing a constant 100 Watts, then it is possible for the room to get to 1000°C with enough (meaning a lot) of insulation. Your copper building might ...


3

It's the density calculation you have. You're almost there! This site explains it pretty well: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/slurry-density-calculate-d_1188.html Density of slurry=1/[(ratio of solid/mixture masses)/(solid density)+(ratio of liquid/mixture masses)/(liquid density)] Density of slurry=1/[0.148 kg/0.767 kg /(3200 kg/m^3) +0.619 kg/0.767 ...


2

It always depends on the concentration and where you place the copper within the human body. In my opinion, the most interesting example are implants which are coated with copper and implanted within the human body. The idea behind this is, that copper is toxic at very low concentrations for bacteria, and the toxic concentration for human cells is slightly ...


2

To answer the question the way it's asked heating element of sort which is providing 100°C constantly but because room is totally insulated and shut can the temperature goes upto 1000°C or not ? No, this is not possible. A 100°C heater can't heat its surroundings above 100°C. Heat will not pass from cold part of the system to hot part of the system. ...


2

There are specialty sensors and relays that are sensitive enough for the range of pressure you need, but they may be expensive. one way is to hang the container in balance with a ballast weight to a gas valve like a flush mechanism. I did a sketch which is basically you container hung in balance with a submerged Wider flange to take in more volume with ...


2

The embrittlement and goop-forming reactions are fundamentally different, and different measures would be needed to deal with each. Rubber embrittlement occurs when the rubber oxidizes, and stops being rubber anymore because the rubber molecule chains get cut and the chemical bonds between adjacent molecules get broken. This degradation process is made ...


2

Mineral oil is not used to cool transformers because it is flammable. Transformer oil is a different compound which is not flammable and possesses high dielectric strength. In any case, the temperatures inside a welding arc are high enough to decompose almost all chemical compounds, as Blacksmith37 points out.


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No. In water welding you make steam (> hydrogen and oxygen) and conditions need to compensate for the problem of hydrogen entry in the steel. With oil you are adding the large problem of also adding carbon to the steel. Plus the oil will be cracking and producing a whole range of smaller molecules and probably some carbon and very heavy tar-like materials....


2

You could follow either Chemistry (Science), Chemical Engineering or Electrical Engineering and purse a career in Semiconductors. There are many variation in Semiconductor that fall either into chemistry or electronics. Below is small sample of options Semiconductor Lithography Systems MEMS Technology Semiconductor Failure Analysis Silicon Wafer Processing ...


2

It is possible and this is currently being done at the OpenAir Collective. There are two direct air carbon capture (DACC) machines under active development, Violet and Cyan. Both are small-scale, open-sourced, non-commercial systems that could be used to take CO2 out of the air and to supply it as fertilizer to plants. These units do not offer CO2 ...


2

The alloy makes a difference. If it is essentially copper and zinc like 70:30 (cartridge brass, or admiralty if you put in one pre-cent tin) or lower amounts of zinc: Nothing much happens with the phases. Hard to guess why he thinks there is segration or residual stresses after a slow cool from 400 C. Actually a water quench would give a solution anneal, ...


2

you also need to take into account that the complete burn for octane is: $$2C_8H_{18} + 25\;O_2 \rightarrow 16\;CO_2 +18\;H_2O $$ Therefore $a$ should be equal to $\frac{25}{2}$.


1

I used a different search engine and may have found something useful. "When cold worked brass is progressively heated, the first effect, at about 250ºC, is for the internal stresses to be relieved. This prevents stress corrosion cracking subsequently occurring and also minimises the amount of distortion which may occur during machining. This low ...


1

I prefer this definition for Hf: "The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states." Simply put though heat of formation is a tool we use to quickly calculate heat of ...


1

assuming full combustion, CO2 coming out is none from the H2 1:1 mole ratio from the CH4 So mass of CO2 = ( mass of CH4 ) x ( molar mass of CO2 ) / ( molar mass of CH4) Add a slight adjustment for Ethane content of the natgas, if you want. You also need the heating value of the H2 to figure out the total mass, so you can get the mass of CH4.


1

In my opinion, it is very difficult anymore to get to anything truly novel without mixing different disciplines. For example, its difficult to imagine, advances in molecular treatments, without the interaction of biologists, statisticians, engineers (electrical, mechanical and chemical). So in my opinion compartmentalization of disciplines is something that ...


1

Welcome to SE. Since your interest pertains to do very distinct field, I would recommend in taking one field as a major and the other as minor with key subjects you are interested in. Electro-Chemistry is maybe you are interested in so check with the university program that if they offer it.


1

Not likely unless they use a very unusual ore. Blast furnaces generally do not use scrap. Scrap likely contains zinc ( die castings) . Electric arc remelt furnaces melt a high percentage of recycle containing zinc. There may still be open hearths or other furnaces used to melt recycle. So, furnaces other than blast furnaces are likely the source. Depending ...


1

I haven't done furfural desorption from biochar, but I have done furfural desorption from metals. Here are some thoughts off the top of my head. Regarding your question of furfural adsorption. I would be concerned about the adsorption selectivity of furfural (a fairly "mid sized" molecule) from bio-oil. My expectation is that it's not that good since bio-...


1

The dominant protection mechanism is that the aluminum excludes seawater from contact with the steel underneath, and if passivated with a layer of oxide, the corrosion rate of the aluminum via direct chemical attack will be low. Aluminum does not protect steel the way a coating of zinc will. If the aluminum gets pierced and the steel underneath is exposed, ...


1

Do they provide you with the temperature of the system? In this case what they want you to do is solve first the boiler mass balance, in case there are heat/temperature specs you could make a energy balance (taking into account the Keq of the dissociation of ammonia along with the Keq of the disociation of water that does change at higher temperatures) To ...


1

vaporizing metal in a near-vacuum is a straightforward process; the simplest method is called sputtering and is one specific method of vacuum metallization as noted by William Hird above. Keeping a vaporized metal in a gaseous state for more than a few milliseconds is a different proposition, however. For that you would need a furnace with tremendous power ...


1

In generel for N species you have N mass balances. So in your case 2. Also mass is conserced ( other than moles when it comes to chemical reaction). So you definitely know that the mass flow rate of Y is 1500. Also have in mind that the divider doesn't change the composition of your species and you also know the composition of product 1 ( have in mind that ...


1

The radius $r$ can be calculated purely from geometry. Consider the FCC lattice. Its lattice parameter $a$ is related to radius through the arrangement of atoms. What is the close-packed direction in the FCC lattice? Along the face diagonal, because two corner atoms touch the face-centered atom. The length of the face diagonal is $\sqrt{a}$ by the ...


1

You can eliminate Q and Ek as well. This is because the heat transfer between the water and ambient is negligible in hydro-electricity(for steam power plants Q might be significant) . Also, at the the reservoir/dam where water is stored, the water usually has negligent speed, thus low value of K.E. The potential energy of water is the significant term, with ...


1

Since the composition is given in mole % then your calculation basis must be in moles or kilo moles. If you start with a Kg basis then you need to know the weight composition then calculate the mole composition.


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As I understand the chemistry though, adding heat to an exothermic reaction should slow the reaction and effectively take longer for the joint to cure. Higher temperature means higher reaction speed, due to higher molecular kinetic energy. What changes for exothermic vs. endothermic reactions is their equilibrium point, not their speed. In the case of epoxy ...


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