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18

Steel is defined as an alloy of iron and carbon; there is no such thing as a non-ferrous steel. If you alloy some other metal with carbon, it becomes something other than steel. Looking for a steel without iron in it would be like looking for brass or bronze without copper. You can alloy things other than copper with zinc, tin, or aluminum, but those would ...


15

It's a naked piezoelectric buzzer. Some piezoelectric crystal grown on a metal circle are the active part and the bottom contact glued on the back cover. The top is then metallised to get the second contact. Wires could be soldered to the contacts and/or the device could be cased in some plastic box but, since space is a premium here, it's used as is without ...


10

Is it indeed possible Yes and reasonable to craft a carriage side of such large single sheet It can be reasonable, but typically isn't. To form an entire side of the carriage from one sheet of steel would require a forming press that is gargantuan. However, one could instead have three more reasonably sized presses and then weld the sections together. ...


10

Stainless steel can be used up to temperatures of about 1000C. The corrosion resistance of zinc plating decreases rapidly above 100C, and embrittlement can occur above 500C. Zinc plating has lower resistance to chemical corrosion from acids and alkalis than stainless steel. Aside from mechanical damage caused by scratching, the rate of corrosion may not be ...


10

One of the mechanism that affect corrosion is known in the literature as Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The idea is that tensile stressed regions are prone to crack development. Crack development essentially maximizes the area that corrosion can develop. Since corrosion, degrades the properties of the material, this accelerates further the crack ...


8

Just do it Since the primary requirement is to not harm the existing structure, anything that is done will have to be manual. Humans are good about dealing with varying conditions. Each lock type, shape, and location is different. We don't trust robots to excavate archeological sites for the same reason. Do no harm Even with humans manually cutting the ...


8

Which of the following materials will be most suitable to manufacture the disc for the stiffest/strongest possible part. It seems that you need a material that will transform a non-uniform load into a more-or-less uniform load by providing consistent bearing. As such, you're looking at something like a plate on an elastic foundation, albeit on a much ...


7

The common pipe threads that are used in buildings for water and gas are tapered threads. The thread is cut on the cone rather than cylinder. In the US, these threads are called National Pipe Thread Tapered (or NPTT1, or simply NPT). They don't seal metal-to-metal. Thread seal tape is wound onto the male thread before it's screwed in. When the tapered ...


7

You are likely referring to a counterbore hole, which may be drilled using a bit of the same name. Alternately, if you can't find a bit of the appropriate dimensions, it may be possible to remove the material using an end-mill tool in a CNC mill of smaller diameter than the hole (say 3 mm to the hole's 6 mm), and having the CNC machine mill a series of ...


7

It's possible, aluminum sheeting comes in large rolls; You take one that is wide enough and you can cut out a single sheet long enough for the length of the carriage. It's probably attached to the structure using welds on the inside However seams can be very well hidden under the paint after welding them together and sanding it down.


7

Short answer Forging loads are dependent on total deformation and die type in addition to temperature. So that kind of table is not possible. But you can check flow stress curves such as given below from Ohio State for 403 steel. Long answer It's not very easy to give forging loads because they are not linear. Forging loads change with strain. Below are ...


6

Iron and carbon have an interaction which make them different from most engineering alloys. This is to do with both the relative size of C and Fe atoms and their chemistry. Carbon atoms are just the right size to insert themselves into the crystal lattice of iron, this strains the lattice enough that it is somewhat harder and stronger than pure iron. ...


6

Assuming the spring is not fully compressed/bottomed out, it doesn't really matter if the spring material is expanding or not because it's a spring - it will deform to fill the space between the coils. Instead of providing an increasing distance, it will increase the force the spring exerts on your fulcrum. This shouldn't be an issue if you have the ...


6

The bulk price of titanium doesn't tell the whole story. A big chunk of the cost of titanium parts is down to the fact that it is significantly more costly to make things out of titanium than steel. Even before you start manufacturing parts there are costs associated with processing stock to the correct dimensions and specifications (in this case thin ...


6

these are part-tracking marks. they indicate which cavity in the mold the part was cast from, in which mold set, in what molding machine, in what year, month, day and shift. this way, a part that fails its finished goods inspection or failed in the field can be tracked backwards through the factory to its source, and the reason for the failure fixed.


5

In addition to tapered threads for creating seals, there are Compression Fittings which use a matching male and female mating low angle taper to create a sealing surface. When properly torqued, they rely on elastic deformation to "squish" the mating surfaces together to create a seal. These are re-usable. Crush washers are used in a similar fashion to ...


5

As a HEMA practitioner and a physicist, I can tell you that different swords need different properties and it is unlikely one material will be the end-all for a sword material. Depending on the sword, you may actually want different parts of the blade to have different properties. Rapiers, for instance, are much less rigid than hand-and-a-half swords (or "...


5

Convection, Conduction, Radiation Of the three modes of heat transfer, only one is affected by the vacuum. As you noted in your question, gaseous convection should be eliminated. That being said, the thermal shock is present as soon as the hot material hits the mold. As soon as the two materials come into contact, the heat transfer will be by conduction. ...


5

To give at least some context to this. Titanium is generally considered 'exotic' for welding purposes as it is quite sensitive to both temperature change and contamination by atmospheric gasses, even at temperatures significantly below its melting point. Like aluminium, titanium is quite reactive but protects itself from corrosion by formation of a stable ...


5

First of all, with your 4 inch distance, the propagation time wouldn't be 0.1 seconds. It would be 0.000 000 000 339 seconds. Measuring such short time differences is a significant challenge and there are no obvious off-the-shelf solutions capable of it. But more than that, the propagation time doesn't depend only on the distance. The shape ...


5

In short, because steel is less expensive on a strength per dollar basis of anything else, and for large structures, it's less expensive to work, again on a strength per dollar basis. That's why steel construction predominates in cars, too. For small boats, the cost equation leans more toward the ease of manufacture of that size of structure out of ...


4

The following table gives some of the material properties of four metals: gold, aluminium, titanium and iron. Metal Tensile Shear Bulk Young's Brinell Density Strength Modulus Modulus Modulus Hardness MPa GPa GPa GPa GPa g/cm^3 Gold 120 27 180 79 188-216 19....


4

Making a nozzle with that long and thin of a hole is not feasible, but you could make a larger hole behind it and just have the last 3mm be 0.6mm in diameter. This would be feasible in a ceramic, but due to cost, I might make the nozzle into an insert that goes into a larger piece made of cheaper material. Things to be concerned with: Stream breakup due to ...


4

Summary: Both processes depend on relative solubility of solute between high and low temperature solvent phases. How each process proceeds at sub-microscopic scale is very different. Precipitation hardening is diffusion-limited, while martensite formation is diffusionless. Precipitation hardening is a diffusion-limited process in which (generally ...


4

Although the time and temperatures may be the same, different things are happening. Tempering generally reduces hardness/strength, but improves toughness. Aging martensite is done for a group of specialty steels; PH-precipitation hardening. 17-4 PH is the most common. During aging, hardness/strength and toughness increase. Precipitation hardening is more ...


4

You're going to struggle to get a reliable gas tight fit with that design. For a start it would be better if the two connections were separate so they aren't fighting against each other in terms of fit. Equally rather that trying to reinvent the wheel you would be better using off the shelf connectors which are known to work. It would be fairly trivial ...


4

the former soviet union had plentiful stores of titanium on hand, so its expense was not an issue. Being nonmagnetic, a titanium hull would be more difficult to detect with magnetometers. Note also that in a properly-designed submarine pressure hull, the limiter is not tensile strength but compressive yield strength and elastic modulus, since the hull ...


4

Anything is possible and lowering the lightship weight (LS) of ships will save fuel, but the key issue would be any change must not reduce the seaworthiness of ships. This question is very broad. Regulations have been established for commercial steel ships (DNV GL, Lloyds, ABS, individual countries). These regulations take into account the harsh marine ...


4

These containers are nitrous oxide canisters https://www.talktofrank.com/drug/nitrous-oxide https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recreational_use_of_nitrous_oxide


4

Probably not. The friction welding process presupposes a certain level of ductility so the mating surfaces can deform together and completely bond. Ceramics lack the deformation mechanisms that metals have and so one would not expect bonding to easily occur. In addition, getting the workpieces hot enough to melt by friction requires tremendous pressures ...


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