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Generally the term emissions or RF energy is used rather than radiation. While radiation or even non-ionizing radiation can be used it causes excessive worry and panicking in people who don't understand the differences between types of radiation. No one claims that a lightbulb is flooding the room with radiation but it is, we normally call this radiation ...


3

Your assumption is incorrect. The color we see is the combination of reflected light, if any, and radiated light. All objects radiate photons of one wavelength or another. All objects absorb photons of one wavelength or another. These two spectral curves (absorption and radiation) are the same, but the spectral power curve of the irradiance obviously ...


3

There are 2 effects to look out for: Magnetic induction into wiring from e.g. coronal mass ejections. The electrical grid is already largely protected against these events. To protect equipment in your home, unplug it. Radiation damage, in the event that Earth's magnetic field collapses. In computers, this manifests first as Single Event Upsets: components ...


3

The isotope used in smoke detectors, americium-241, has a half-life of 432 years. It would take a very long time for simple radioactive decay to affect the operation of a smoke detector.


2

That isn't how they work at all. The smoke does not "block" the radiation in that way. And even if it did, a decay in the rate of emission would make the detector more sensitive, not less. The theory is that uncontaminated air is relatively hard to ionize, while air with smoke in it is easily ionized, for example, by an alpha particle emitted by a small ...


2

Any diameter wire, multiple parallel heated elements describes a toaster, an electric oven, any number of radiant heaters already in existence. Your problem is not whether you can do it with such a system, but more of a question if you can avoid melting the plastic bed on which the powder sits. It's unlikely that you can regulate the heat in such a ...


2

You certainly need to take account of the shape of the object somehow. As a simple example, consider a sphere of radius $r$ in space where everything except solar radiation can be ignored. The cross section area of the sphere which is absorbing solar radiation is $\pi r^2$ but the surface area which is emitting it is $4 \pi r^2$. So the radiative heat ...


2

Attempting this as a home experiment is unlikely to be feasible. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator#241Am gives the efficiency of professional prototype designs using Americum as about 2 watts / kilogram of Am. The electrical power you will get from a few micrograms of material will be undetectable (of the order of picowatts)...


1

Like others have stated, low intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (the radiation from wires in your home) has no known health effects. That said, it does not hurt to minimize EMI as it allows your electronics and wireless devices to operate more reliably. Speaking specifically to Ethernet wires; these have one of the lowest radiation of all ...


1

There are known risks from high intensity electric fields. For example see the UK legislation "The Control of Electromagnetic Fields at Work Regulations 2016" at https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2016/588/pdfs/uksi_20160588_en.pdf However these regulations apply to field strengths higher than 100 volts/meter (and at low frequencies, 10,000 volts/...


1

From Wikipedia: Ionizing radiation is generated through nuclear reactions, nuclear decay, by very high temperature, or via acceleration of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. Natural sources include the sun, lightning and supernova explosions. Artificial sources include nuclear reactors, particle accelerators, and x-ray tubes. (emphasis added) ...


1

Greenhouses generally work by trapping radiation (infrared to be more specific). More specifically what they do is allow most of the sun radiation to come through and then trap the infrared radiation which is re-emitted from the objects within the greenhouse. types of heat transfer For the greenhouse equilibrium you need to consider all 3 types of heat ...


1

Microwaves are not "ionizing" in that they will not knock electrons, protons, or neutrons out of orbit or split an atom with their energy via particle collisions. This is in contrast to high-energy gamma rays, neutrons, etc. But that is not the type of ionization that involves plasma. Plasma is created via heating, which then lets electrons be ...


1

Depending on how much nuclear material you have, you can use a system based on thermoelectric materials to directly use the heat from the decay of the material to generate electricity. Following from Hazzey's comment, the safety of the experiment will quickly go out of the household realm the more power you try to generate. Edit for OP comment 1: In theory ...


1

For anyone coming later: I ended up using a procedure described here: Kevin C. Gross, Phenomenological model for IR emission from high explosive detonation fireballs In one sentence: I ended up measuring the blackbody spectrum at increasing temperatures. Then fitting a linear relation between measured and theoretical value for emission intensity (per ...


1

So, after a little googling around. Cellphones typically transmit on 3/4 G at between 0.3 and 3 W - subject to tower location & interference. The out put power is managed by the cell tower. Mobile phone wifi is typically 15mW. If we assume min output for 3/4 G at 300 mW (0.3 W) this is, at best, 20 times greater than wifi at 15 mW. On that basis I ...


1

The equation for efficiency in thermodynamics is as follows: $$\eta = W_{out}/W_{in}$$ and to get this as a percentage you just multiply $\eta \;\mathrm{x}100=\%$ See the link below! https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_ef


1

There are several issues going on that I believe are making the model not very accurate. They all in some way relate to your question about the convection: Breaking up the flow into 5 discrete chunks is a good start, but probably not a sufficient number. Keep increasing the number of nodes in your model until the answer stops changing. The next thing to ...


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