This sounds like the exact synopsis of my masters thesis.
Theoretically a format that can contain this info exits. STEP could include this information, but since the exporter has some serious leeway into implementation so no export actually contains all you ask for and even if it did theres no guarantee your importer would understand it even if included.
However, exporting this information is pretty easily done yourself. The only thing that is hard to implement is the geometry export, but for that you can use any of the existing formats.
So what you do is you write a script that querries each parts transformation matrix, mass info and joint positions then dump it into a (json, xml etc file) file next to your normal export. Then write a importer for that data in the opposite end. This should not need to be terribly hard, ive done this in Creo and Catia. Creo having by far the least accessible API took about 2 weeks to implement once i figured out that this was indeed what i wanted to do. In contrast for Catia less than a week. Reading it in to say Adams or Simulink was pretty trivial by comparasion.
By the way the creo simulink exporter works exactly like this.