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All these terms refer to the effect of loading on the deformation of materials. Let us assume that we start with zero load and zero deformation. Elastic deformation If you increase the load you get an increase in deformation. During the process of elastic deformation, if you decrease the load to zero you will not have any residual non-zero deformation. ...


4

No there is no equation for it, as it is caused by the processing differences of the different sizes and has nothing to do with the size of the material. Smaller bars are subject to more work to get them down to the required size as they start out from the same size billet as the larger bars. Smaller bars also take less time heat up during heat treatments, ...


4

Strength can mean different things in different contexts and technical definitions can vary significantly from what is commonly understood by the word 'strength'. For structures where actual forces are more relevant you might talk about rated loads, safe working loads or design loads in conjunction with factors of safety but this usually needs to be ...


3

The basic Euler buckling formula is unrealistic because it implies perfect geometry and perfect alignment of the loads. Therefore a large empirical safety factor is required. It is also a potentially catastrophic failure mode, in the sense that the buckled column supports no load at all, unlike plastic failure in compression for example. There are ...


2

Yes, it is better to design for yield than buckling because Euler buckling is a result of instability as opposed to overloading force. Gamma f is determined from Eurocodes which are from extensive research and materials testing. This means yield is safer than buckling because buckling is not predictable nor easily counteracted in design. It also would mean ...


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I hope the following helps. This is from a book I used in college. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 5th Ed. by Kalpakjian and Schmid Minimum Bend Radius Where **r** is the tensile reduction of area.


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Euler buckling is a perfectly elastic behavior: if a beam buckles, it takes a sinusoidal shape of arbitrary (possibly infinite) amplitude. If you then remove the applied force, the beam will return to its original, perfectly-straight shape. Real-world beams, however, don't behave this way: if you buckle a beam, it gets destroyed. After all, Euler buckling's ...


2

One of the most fundamental principles in the eurocodes is the distinction between the serviceability limit state (SLS) and the ultimate limit state (ULS). An element that has large, visible deformations but still is able to support the load is ugly and potentially scary, but not dangerous. Therefore, initial buckling is considered an SLS failure, but not ...


2

ASTM A513 standard for carbon and alloy Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) mechanical tubing. It covers carbon steel grades starting at 1008 and higher (1010, 1015, 1020, 1026) in addition to specified alloy steels and can be classified Type 1 (Hot Rolled Electric Resistance Welded), Type 2 (cold rolled) and Type 5(Drawn Over Mandrel). Depending on the type ...


1

This is more of an opinion on the question rather than a definitive answer. TL;DR: I believe Von Mises is not really suitable when there are different yield stresses, however it's a good enough compromise I believe that there is a misunderstanding that there is a "Von Mises stress". What actually the Von Mises criterion estimates is the strain ...


1

The different mechanical properties for different sheet thicknesses has to do with grain refinement of the material during the rolling process. The following figures show what is happening to the old grain structure. The new elongated grain are the results of cold working. It is possible through annealing to form new grains (with no bias in direction). The ...


1

Determining the yield point for aluminium alloys can be difficult as it is not as well defined as steel and the stress/strain curve tends to gradually peel away from the straight elastic line rather than there being a distinct cut-off. For a low tech experiment ultimate tensile strength is easier to measure as you are more likely to observe an obvious ...


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