5

Ultrasound partially reflects when it encounters a medium with different acoustic impedance. It behaves like light and obeys Fresnel equations. If the angle of incidence is smaller than the total internal reflection angle, then part of the ultrasound beam will go forward (with some refraction) and part will reflect back from the interface between the media....


2

There are three dye-pene types. The cheapest one is likely good enough ;1- A dye is applied ( usually red), 2- allow to soak ,3 - clean off surface dye( May use a cleaner for this ), 4- spray on a white developer: Depending on experience ,very small cracks can be found in any material. The second type of dye-pene uses a fluorescent dye and UV light ; faster ...


2

Solar Mike is exactly right, the method he cites is called dye penetrant and it works for ferrous metals, aluminum alloys, and composites as well. all you need is a bottle of the fluorescent dye, the spray-on developer powder, and a UV light. This will cost less than $100.


2

Ultra sound sensors could be used, you know the general size of all available container sizes and the material it is made of create a lookup table for such empty containers returning sounds. sound returned from a loaded truck will be different. It will not give you mg though.


1

Eddy current analysis, we paid $17k per unit, but they're for manufacturing lines. I'm not sure how much a smaller hand-held unit with a stylus-type probe is. We buy our equipment from Magnetic Analysis Corp. but I don't know if they have the smaller equipment.


1

In my lab we use ultrasound cleaners a lot, albeit to clean glassware but from all sorts of stains and dirt. What I would suggest at first is that you try water + dishwashing liquid. Dishwashing liquid is formulated to bind partially to grease (surfactant effect). Do let us know how it goes.


1

Since this question is addressed around COVID-19, which is trending these days this response is focused on COVID-19 and using electronics to destroy the virus. The response is focused around destroying any live COVID-19 on surfaces as mentioned in comment. Soap works best to destroy the virus. Here is good explanation. How soap kills the coronavirus? ...


1

For multiple "spots" on a road, train an overhead, high-speed (maybe), sensitive, thermal imaging camera on the road. All else being equal, higher pressure from a vehicle passing over a "spot" will cause it to heat up more from compression, deformation, and destruction. The material should be briefly hotter along the "heat tire ...


1

Measure the deflection of the suspension springs in the trailer. The greater the load, the lower the trailer will sit. You prepare a calibration chart using known weights loaded on a given brand of trailer and repeat for the most popular brands. Then you can detect how heavily the trailer is loaded by how much closer to the ground it is than it would be if ...


1

So, the difference between both is their working and the mode of excitation. the bender piezo shall be loaded in cantilever (better for application with higher loads) less accuracy. While the disk transducer is better accuracy with lower stroke. I feel like this is correct. Look at the product specifications to be sure. Thanks.


1

Typical distance sensors depend on time-of-flight. If you're trying to hack the distance from return power level, you will not be happy (to put it mildly). It's next to impossible to calibrate any system that way. As to direction, it should be obvious that you cannot possibly do so with a single receiver. As a minimum you'd need two sensors aka two ...


1

Well, nothing is impossible. But, lets see what you are trying to do: This diagram is simplified; in reality, there are 3 different P (compression) waves and 2 different S (shear) waves. Measurement of the first P wave is very easy because it depends on the first arrival time (it is the fastest wave). But to measure the S wave, you first need to isolate ...


1

Any common lab materials will do if all you need is for the ultrasound waves to pass through them, like glass or aluminum plate. More importantly is that the material must not porous and have a good surface condition. Also the angle of incident should be perpendicular to the material surface. Look at the table on the bottom of this page: http://www.kayelaby....


1

Since ultrasound is often used for medical purposes on humans and animals, I would think that ballistic gelatin could be used for this experiment. It supposedly has the same density as muscle tissue, and is comprised primarily of water, much the same as muscle tissue. The best part is, you can set objects (fake skeletal structure or other foreign objects) ...


1

The resolution depends on the material you are using and the frequency $f$ applied. An approximation for the resolution is given by half of the wavelength $$\lambda = \frac{c}{f}.$$ The sonic speed $c$, in meters per second, for some materials, is given by the following list: Steel: 5900 Aluminum: 6320 Brass: 4430 Lead: 2160 Water: 1480 Air: 330. ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible