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In theory, the stress-strain curve should be identical for bars with and without void (hole). However, some minor variant is expected because of the different stress patterns at the critical crosssection that inevitably affect the measurement. Note: The typical tensile test specimen is as shown below. Pay attention to the statement below the figure.


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This can be very simple when you look at an alternative sign convention for torsional moments. Figure 1:Alternative sign convention for torque (double arrow and curved arrow) (source:ENGR2140 usu.instructure.com) Both representations above represent the same loading condition on the beam. Of course the most usual is the later (with the curved arrow), ...


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There's nothing stopping you from drawing "shear stress lines" whose density corresponds to the stress magnitude. These will have as much meaning as the "axial stress lines": useful for broad visualization and intuition but not really quantitatively predictive from a sketch. See here for a previous discussion on the meaning of such "...


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In the part, you have sketched it is easy: the torque will cause tangential shear stress in the two shafts. But because at the fillet the there is a large step up in the shear stress moving from left to the right along the shaft, as the graph shows the smaller the fillet radius, r the less ductility to transit gradually from high shear in smaller diameter ...


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You can actually take a look here: Shear, pure and simple for a mathematical description.


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The direction of Forces isn't necessarily along the connecting element. If that happens depends a lot on the constraints between the different elements. For example see the following image: In the left column is a "welded" structure, while on the right column is a pin jointed structure (a basic truss) if you like. On the top there are the shapes ...


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Strickly to say, this can only occur for fluid materials or airflow. For which you shouldn't have any problem in understanding how the diverging occurs. Diagrams below show how the force flow in a hollow triangle (left), a rigid body (middle), and the random flow of the fluid force. Note there is no surface pressure/force in the first and second cases.


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Hook's law is a first-principled behavior that models the elastic force-distance relationship for axial stretching or compressing of two coupled objects. It is one of the easiest models to use for the behavior of chemical bonds between two atoms or two molecules. It is the common standard to model the behavior of springs. Hook's law can also be extended to ...


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