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The answer by Frédéric Bourgeon is great. You may also find useful this free online calculation tool for elastic critical moment in It is based on the aforementioned NCCI but it is much simpler to apply as compared to LTBeam, at least for the typical cases encountered in design practice. It covers typical I- or H- profiles (IPE, HEA, ...


I would say it really depends on the tool steel being used. I read that its recommended for water hardening steels to be quenched in a brine solution opposed to straight water, so perhaps there's some validity to the statement. Whether or not you can quench an oil hardening steel in water/brine, id imagine water quenching an O type steel would "shock" the ...


Historically production was : ingot > reheat> bloom > reheat > billet. For about the last 40 years production has been : continuous casting directly produces billets. An ingot was roughly 2 ' X 4' X 8 ' . Continuous strands can be down to about 6 " X very long. There are a great number of variations depending on final product , alloy, the individual mill , ...

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