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You need to shore the structure first. Welding heat will lower the strength of the steel. then you should use needle gun and grinder to bring the corroded material to bright metal. The patch plates should be thicker than 1/2 of the web thickness. H.S bolts are preferred method of fastening, but if welding is used it should be intermittent and done in ...

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To make handles (where liquid won't be flowing through the tube) simply crush tubing in a press. It's called tube flattening. Notice that the tubing is simply crushed to bend it into a handle shape using a press.

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The analysis of your wall depends on many factors, is it supported at all sides or just the top and bottom or may be it is acting as a cantilever. Also whether the supports are clamped or pinned. As a very conservative start you can use $$P_{Critical}= \frac{\pi^2EI}{(KL)^2}$$ K is the effective length factor and ranges from 2 for cantilever to 0.5 for ...

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I have only seen it done on a continuous basis . Flat stock is pulled through a few dies then final rollers press the two edges together to make a weld ( usually an ERW , electric resistance weld ). Most steel pipe up to about 24" diameter is made this way. Small tubing , like 1 ", is made that way. But some small tubing is made by starting with 4 " pipe ...

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I don't have current ASTM specs ( they are renewed every 5 years); However , it is very possible there is no hardness specified . There are tensile and yield strength and ductility requirements ; minimums ( usually in a spec like this, no maximums are specified). One can get a pretty good estimate of the ( minimum ) hardness from conversion charts. For ...

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I don't think there will be just one. From ASTM's web page: This specification covers carbon, low-alloy, high-strength low-alloy, and alloy steel hot-rolled floor plates for flooring, stairways, transportation equipment, and general structural purposes. Steel materials shall undergo heat and product analysis. Steel specimens shall also undergo tensile ...

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