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The direction of Forces isn't necessarily along the connecting element. If that happens depends a lot on the constraints between the different elements. For example see the following image: In the left column is a "welded" structure, while on the right column is a pin jointed structure (a basic truss) if you like. On the top there are the shapes ...


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Strickly to say, this can only occur for fluid materials or airflow. For which you shouldn't have any problem in understanding how the diverging occurs. Diagrams below show how the force flow in a hollow triangle (left), a rigid body (middle), and the random flow of the fluid force. Note there is no surface pressure/force in the first and second cases.


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What's an equation? In life there are two types of equations: theoretical equations are obtained from first principles: make some assumptions and then play around with variables until you get a useful equation empirical equations are obtained by experiment and then finding an equation that adequately describes the observed behavior. Theoretical equations ...


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SI In the SI, you are correct that the idea is that you don't need to modify the equations. You can use any units in the equation and perform the conversions in the calculation. Typically, what one (usually a beginner) would do is convert to the basic SI units and then perform the calculation. For example a steel (E=200GPA) cantilever beam with L = 2[m], ...


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Yes, the equations are valid for both imperial and metric systems. The most important thing is to use consistent units of a system throughout the calculations. Consistency of units matters as most mistakes are caused by mixing the imperial and metric units without conducting correct unit conversions (such as 1 in = 25.4 mm, 1MPa = 145 psi), or forgetting to ...


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This sketch is traced off from yours, you may update any missing/incorrect details. However, my impression is you were calculating the forces on plane a-a with the force applied as shown. For such a case, the bolt acts as a shear lug/pin and subjects to shear force only, no bending will occur or only with a negligible amount of moment resulted from the force ...


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The short answer, is that there are bending stresses in the configuration you are presenting. The big difference is that for such small aspect ratio beams the shear stress are comparable to the bending stresses. Because, the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (which is a cornerstone of structural engineering) ignores shear stresses, the equations are not applicable....


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