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Take a look at ARDUINO MOTOR SHIELD REV3. Here is what it looks like. If you have several motors then might have to stack several motor shields.


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Cascaded control may be a good solution, but there's something simpler that you could try first. Simply add a bit of logic after the PID loop to skip from -20 to 20%. if(pid_output > 0%) pid_output = (pid_output+20%)/1.2; else if(pid_output < 0%) pid_output = (pid_output-20%)/1.2; What your essentially doing is remapping the -100% to 100% output ...


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I would go for a so called series elastic element (SEE). Just make a small guide and slider, attach a compression spring to one end of the guide and to the slider and measure the position of the slider by using a linear potentiometer (super easy to read out with an Arduino, you basically just need GND, 5V and an analog input). If you push the slider, the ...


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A standard on/off push button will not read analog. To accurately read analog force you need a load cell. This is what is used in a bathroom or letter scale for example. There are other (generally less acurate and lower cost) technologies that use the spring constant of a material in combination with a distance sensing method. This resistive force sensor ...


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Remember: current is proportional to torque. It would be linear like you expect if it was like: PWM pulse high: Instant full current, and thus full torque. PWM pulse low: Instant zero current and thus zero torque. But just like with objects, you can't instantly speed them up, or slow them down to 0. You'll very clearly feel that when running into a wall....


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