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The ball gathers velocity and when you decelerate it the inertia results in the development of forces that separate it from the cup. Basically the inertia force which is required to develop the deceleration exceeds the maximum force of the bond between the ball and the cup.


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Here is a quick walk-through of a typical ammonia-water chiller you may find useful. An aqueous ammonia concentrated solution is evaporated using a heat source to generate a nearly dehydrated ammonia vapor. The vapor is at a decently high pressure. The dehydrated ammonia vapor continues to the condenser where it is cooled and condensed. The pressure is ...


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Assume you were able to put uniform pressure each time on the dough, and assume the material property is uniform in all directions, then it is correct that the stress readings should be $W_1/A_1$ and $W_2/A_2$. However, the stresses will not be constant, unless $A_2 = 8*A_1$ (for $W_2 = 8*W_1$). In reality, the stresses will not uniform due to change in ...


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Flow rate is directly proportional to the square root of pressure. So for any given orifice, all else being equal, $\frac{GPM}{\sqrt{PSI}}$ is constant. Technically PSI here is the pressure difference across the orifice, but with no backpressure only the input pressure matters. For an orifice rated 1.8 GPM at 90 PSI, $\frac{GPM}{\sqrt{PSI}} = 0.1897$. To ...


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If you know the external diameter and orifice diameter, From Wikipedia the orifice plate equation : $$q_m =\frac{ C_d}{\sqrt{1-\beta^4}}\epsilon\frac{\pi}{4} d^2 \sqrt{2\Delta p \cdot \rho_1} $$ where: $C_{d}$ = coefficient of discharge, dimensionless, typically between 0.6 and 0.85, depending on the orifice geometry and tappings $\beta$ = diameter ...


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Here is a reference from RoyMech, see section under "Orifice Flow Meter". The setup has the orifice placed in a pipe. Below is a similar, perhaps simpler, expression, from Jobson 1955, part of the way between equations (4) and (5) of that paper. (The paper is really about incompressible flow, this is just a warmup for the author). $$\dot{m} = {{\...


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A Hydraulic intensifier, also called booster, works by converting hydraulic power from a lower pressure input to a higher pressure output with lower volume (flow). Wikipedia A simple design is two connected pistons of different diameter. The lower pressure fluid is applied to the larger piston, the resulting force is transferred to the smaller piston which ...


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Of course we could go below freezing using absorption cooling. The question is who would want to. Lithium Bromide chillers is what I'm familiar with, and the temperatures they can produce is limited less by the chilled medium and more the properties of the LiBr solution. Using brine as the heat transfer medium is common when we need to use chillers below ...


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