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Graphene is still a material with research into it's applications being investigated. What bonding agents and how it would be used into what material, like fibers, bars, etc.


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Internal stresses in a material can have many sources; often, they are caused by uneven cooling of the material, such as immediately after a weld. This uneven cooling results in uneven thermal contraction--some portions of the metal cool sooner than others. The end result is that some portions of the material experience internal tension while others ...


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It depends on the loading conditions. It's important to note that the stress concentrations can be intuitively understood as created by the load's need to deviate from the hole. The larger the width of the hole, the more the load needs to move to go around it. If it's a uniform bi-axial load (your part is under tension/compression in both the X and Y ...


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The average stress across the cross-section (not around the whole) will be $$\sigma = \frac{F}{A}$$ To my understanding, the stress concentrations redistribute the path of the forces, thus increasing locally the stresses. Figure 1: flow path (source Fracturemechanics) The highest observable stress is important because, from that point failure will initiate,...


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The SN diagram below answers your question. Note "High Cycle Fatigue (HCF)" failure is characterized by high repetitive cycles (N), usually equal to or greater than $10^4$, and low-stress (S) in the elastic zone.


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