4 votes

Data accuracy measurment

ppm = parts per million, analogous to percent = parts per 100. So 1 ppm error is equivalent to 0.0001 % error. In the context of accuracy, it's, like percents, a dangerous unit to use, since it is ...
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4 votes
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Real world applications where one would use a force function in PLC programming?

A "force" in a PLC is the act of forcing a memory bit on or off from the PLC programming software. It is used exclusively for testing. Forcing a bit on or off over-rides all other PLC logic. You can ...
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  • 7,489
4 votes

In P&ID, what is the difference in terms of information between pipe and signal line In the diagram?

It may be dependent on the industry, but in my experience that type of information is not included on a P&ID for instrumentation lines. Instead, there is an Instrumentation Installation ...
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  • 1,012
3 votes
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Is there an industry consensus standard for storing sensor data?

My experience is there is no particular standards for saving sensor data. Usually one just picks a format that is useful to the task at hand. If, for instance one wants to do post processing analysis ...
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  • 840
3 votes
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What does this P&ID symbol represent?

From Tip #16 — What is the condition of your diamonds? Example d), as I’m sure you can easily figure out, is a heater. With all other things being equal, this one shows the inward arrows adding ...
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3 votes

What is the name and purpose of this Instrumentation / Mechanical fitting

I'd call the blue part the transmitter housing. This usually contains electronics for sensor signal conversion, which converts the sensor (or probe) low level ...
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  • 61
3 votes

How to measure the pressure inside a bottle rocket?

Why not mount the pressure gauge to the cork itself,so that the gauge remains on the ground with the cork? (i.e. gauge inserted in a hole in the cork or similar setup) If you were hoping to measure ...
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2 votes

Apollo 11 gimbal lock flip

The confusion arises in terminology. What instrumentation engineers call a gyroscope is actually an integrating gyroscope or rate gyro, and what they call a gimbal in gimbal lock isn't the gimbal ...
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  • 5,313
2 votes

How to protect a pressure gauge from condensation in a vacuum steam boiler?

Have you tried a gauge guard? It's a simple diaphragm that allows pressure to transmit, without the liquid crossing the barrier.
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  • 5,313
2 votes

How to get natural frequencies from accelerometer measurements?

It depends on what your data looks like. I recently got some accelerometer data that looked like this after running it through Python's Scipy fft function: The results are pretty straightforward- ...
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2 votes

How can I determine pressure leakage in a pneumatic system?

Fit a dummy test hose with no leaks - a solid tube for example, then pressurise the system to a known value perhaps the maximum used +10%. Then take readings every 10 seconds / 5 minutes (whatever is ...
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  • 14.1k
2 votes
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P&ID Symbol Identification Question

Two of those are not standard usage symbols in that way. You may to have to use context and/or a physical inspection to determine what they are. Where is that diagram from? Various organizations ...
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2 votes

Identification a Symbol for P&ID's Standards

I would guess it's a non-standard symbol for a check valve. @NMech is correct that it looks like a diode, but that would not appear on a P&ID. A check valve is a fluid flow equivalent of a diode ...
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  • 1,012
2 votes

How to measure the pressure inside a bottle rocket?

Use a Manometer A manometer can be mounted to your launch platform and stick into your rocket. The manometer can be made of a simple transparent tube affixed to a vertical rod with dimension tick ...
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2 votes
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Liquid Level Control System Resistance

I'm an electrical engineer so this problem looks to me like an RC (resistor-capacitor) discharge. In the case of a resistor discharging a capacitor the time constant is given by τ = RC. In your case C ...
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  • 8,449
2 votes

Is there a wireless alternative of a Plumb Bob?

Yes, the laser level. Some have lenses to do points of light, sheets etc so floors can be checked for level by showing high points etc One I borrowed allowed me to put a line across the floor, ceiling ...
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  • 14.1k
1 vote

Accurate method or instrument to measure density of shaving cream foam or whipped cream foam?

For a less messy way to determine the volume of shaving cream use a three dimension scanner and software that can determine the volume of scanned items. Acquire some stainless steel, plastic or ...
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  • 9,517
1 vote

Determining stability of a current souce from the datasheet. How to?

I suggest that you take a closer look at typical noise. I have highlight the area of the specification for you reference. The best method is to confirm is measure the output to confirm the output.
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1 vote

Can I use loadcell for vibrating force measurement?

The load cell specification should include the frequency response. Bear in mind that the load cell itself is a dynamic system (e.g it can be modelled as a mass and spring) which may affect the dynamic ...
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  • 12.5k
1 vote
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Orientation of wire in linear position wire sensors

As far as I can see- I think your error in measuring $\delta L$ should be zero. I mean apart from the increased friction, that might hinder the movement a bit, I don't think that you should get any ...
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  • 22.7k
1 vote

AC voltage b/w DC power supply o/p and Ground

Based on the technical data there should not be a 70-80V AC signal in the output terminal. Either you are measuring incorrectly, a wiring issue, grounding issue or defective device. Per the ...
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1 vote

Why do gimballed gyroscopes platforms need drive motors in order to maintain it's fixed orientation?

You asked "why all this complexity, why not to simply measure the rotation angles of the mounting axles of the stabilized plate and let the gyros keep it stable"! The gyros cannot keep it ...
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1 vote

What is the name and purpose of this Instrumentation / Mechanical fitting

The part in your image is a Level Transmitter, https://www.aliexpress.com/i/32711941471.html The silver bit is the transducer, and the blue bit is the transmitter/
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1 vote

If I replace a flow orifice with a Coriolis flow meter of the same size do I need to worry about pressure drop with the new Coriolis meter?

Usually flow orifices are very aggresive to the pressure. Everything you add has a pressure drop and doing calculations by hand of an equipment like that can be hell. So yes you should check the specs ...
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  • 99
1 vote
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Operating a load cell below excitation voltage

The load cell you linked to has a line item on the specs that says "Output: 2 mV/V nominal". Let's just say that you picked the version with 100 lbf full scale output. What that means is this: if ...
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  • 2,511
1 vote

How do solar balloons work at high altitudes?

As long as the density of the air inside the solar balloon is less than the density of the air outside the balloon, the balloon will stay afloat. This is the principle of buoyancy. Regarding wind ...
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  • 9,517
1 vote
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What is the difference between TE and TI?

The element does the measuring and the indicator shows the value. If you think of a simple thermometer, the bulb at the bottom measures the temperature and the glass tube indicates the value...
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  • 14.1k
1 vote

Need help identifying component on hydraulic schematic

Symbol 23 is just a plugged cavity. The two incoming hydraulic lines are both blocked. No flow is exchanged between them. The designer's intent for the cavity is future use. Various cartridge valves ...
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1 vote

Maximum Tensile strength confusion

You have a few questions there: Is the maximum tensile strength a property of a material ? Yes. There is such a thing as maximum tensile strength, or ultimate tensile strength. This is a property of ...
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