3

Here is a reference from RoyMech, see section under "Orifice Flow Meter". The setup has the orifice placed in a pipe. Below is a similar, perhaps simpler, expression, from Jobson 1955, part of the way between equations (4) and (5) of that paper. (The paper is really about incompressible flow, this is just a warmup for the author). $$\dot{m} = {{\...


3

Conical hopper with gate control.


2

The most precise way to control flow is with valves/flow regulator. The main problem is the cost. Although, its a very basic component and its not too costly if you have too many outlets the cost will pile up. Even if you had matching orifices, you might have issues with the pressure drop inside the pipes and corners. Another way to control the flow would ...


2

One basic way is to adjust the valves, the dry ones fully open and the ones bleeding all the pressure just slightly open, or even restricted permanently by a smaller size bushing just before the valve. In conjunction with that, you can install a water tank between the pump and your network with an adequate head and a hydraulic actuator to stop the tank's ...


2

Yes. The range of airflow required is established by the swept volume of the engine and the max rpm. That will then define the pressure drop and venturi needed - which is often controlled by a moving piston to give a larger orifice for higher airflow. Based on the air/fuel ratio the orifice for supplying the fuel can be designed and some (most) carbs use a ...


2

I'm an electrical engineer so this problem looks to me like an RC (resistor-capacitor) discharge. In the case of a resistor discharging a capacitor the time constant is given by τ = RC. In your case C represents the tank capacity and R is your R1, the resistance to flow. Figure 1. The top curve shows the capacitor voltage which is analogous to liquid level ...


2

Flow rate is directly proportional to the square root of pressure. So for any given orifice, all else being equal, $\frac{GPM}{\sqrt{PSI}}$ is constant. Technically PSI here is the pressure difference across the orifice, but with no backpressure only the input pressure matters. For an orifice rated 1.8 GPM at 90 PSI, $\frac{GPM}{\sqrt{PSI}} = 0.1897$. To ...


2

If you know the external diameter and orifice diameter, From Wikipedia the orifice plate equation : $$q_m =\frac{ C_d}{\sqrt{1-\beta^4}}\epsilon\frac{\pi}{4} d^2 \sqrt{2\Delta p \cdot \rho_1} $$ where: $C_{d}$ = coefficient of discharge, dimensionless, typically between 0.6 and 0.85, depending on the orifice geometry and tappings $\beta$ = diameter ...


1

The input is a scaling factor between 1 and 0 that is multiplied with the area of the valve. Do note that for most valves, putting the valve half open does not mean the throughput area is half the total area, so you might want to link that in an equation. $$\frac{dM_{gas}}{dt} = u(t)A_{valve}\rho V_f$$ $$0\leq u(t) \leq 1$$ Which also instantly leads to an ...


1

I found the Grundfos UPS15-58FC Super Brute three-speed circulator pump spec sheet that has a bit more information on the NPSH. The spec sheet doesn't specifically say, but it is likely that these minimum values are the rating for the top speed of the pump. If you application can handle the lower flow, use the lower speed setting of the pump, which results ...


1

Well, technically you would use absorbent like Ca(OH)2 and weight it, to measure how much CO2 you got, through a CO2 permeable membrane to avoid H2O. But in your case its much simpler to just weight the canister before and after. That is, you put a canister on a scale, write down the result, use the canister till its empty, put it on a scale again, write ...


1

This is a challenging measurement. In my opinion best done with a very good balance. Fully shielded from thermals and vibration, obviously. Use a small container with small opening diameter to limit evap to what will hopefully be under 10% of the final measurement (and we will correct for it more later). A clean 2mL glass bottle is good. Fill bottle halfway, ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible