6

With those restrictions you will probably be stuck with using fibre optics, which are expensive. Something like the Parans SP3 system for example. Making your own by purchasing fibers is a possibility but still not cheap and there are a variety of problems with actually implementing it (such as focusing enough light into the fiber and controlling heat issues)...


4

Considering your difficult geometry, you might look into solar panels above ground, with wires to the underground lights. This has the added advantage that you can store some of the energy in batteries for use when there is no sunlight at the surface.


3

I really have no idea, but I did come up with the following possibilities. To minimize reflections from the instrument itself. Light reflecting off the endoscope could interfere with the doctor's view. Because little (if any) body tissue inside the body is black, thus making it easier to distinguish the instrument from body parts. Because that's the ...


3

CO2 lasers cannot be coupled into standard silica-based fibres, because these fibres absorb light longer than 2.1um. You could use hollow silica fibres, but they are quite recently developed, so might be expensive. Otherwise I‘d just go with the standard approach of free propagation over mirrors OR use a solid state laser which can be coupled into standard ...


2

Basically, materials have a tensile strength, and a yield strength. The latter describes how much it elongates under stress, the former how much stress it can have before breaking. It is always given in (M)Pa, so force per surface. This means it doesn't matter what shape or size your fibers are, it remains the same. All the material properties remain the ...


2

You could try adapting the litre of light principle, where a hole is made in the roof of a shed which is then plugged with a re-purposed 1.25 L soft drink bottle filled with water. It provides light in the interior of the shed while the sun is shining. If a bottle was fitted to both ends of a internally reflective plastic tube and the whole system was ...


2

As long as you are not sending data, any light input in one end should be detectable with a color filter covered light sensor at the other end. Example: green film for a green led/laser. Light at the sensor means the beam is not blocked, no light means it is blocked. No fancy modulation should be necessary unless you are trying to filter out similar ...


1

Fiber optics depend on the surface reflecting light by total internal reflection. Therefore the properties of the outer surface are crucial, and reflection depends on what your understanding of a "stream" is. If the water is in direct contact with anything solid (or liquid) (most likely anything but air), it will not work. Total internal reflection depends ...


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