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After the 2014 ICCT report revealed that these light-duty passenger diesel vehicles were emitting too much NOx and US regulators confronted VW about the results, VW did some testing and proposed a voluntary software recall to recalibrate the various emissions control devices on the affected vehicles. From the California Air Resources Board's (CARB's) in-use ...


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Details have emerged in the German press that indicate this was known about in 2007 (from German newspaper Bild am Sonntag, as translated by Automotive News): According to the report, Bosch claims to have supplied diesel engine-management software to Volkswagen under the impression that it would be used only in vehicle testing. That software, which ...


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Normally fans are not custom built by a company that does not build fans. The concept of a centrifugal fan is not particularly complicated, but it is difficult to achieve target flow rate, pressure, and efficiency if your company does not do it on a daily basis. If you are not able to purchase a fan, another option is to copy someone else's simple straight ...


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Q1. The CO is Carbon Monoxide Level, and CO2 is the Carbon Dioxide Level. The difference is huge because the potent levels for both of them are very different. Generally for clean fresh air there will be between 0-0.5ppm CO, and between 250-350ppm CO2. Exposing ourselves to around 800ppm of CO will kill us in 2-3 hours, where as we would need to be ...


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