9

In a more general sense, the electrical concepts of inductance, capacitance and resistance are equivalent to mass, spring constant and friction in the mechanical world. Voltage becomes force and current becomes velocity. For example, the suspension in a vehicle is a carefully-tuned low-pass filter that uses the mass of the frame and body, the springs on the ...


8

Yes, for sound specifically there is a term called "acoustic impedance" that, just like electrical impedance, is frequency dependent. Acoustic impedance results from the acoustic wave equation, which takes the same form as the electromagnetic wave equation. So any solid has an acoustic impedance just like every conductor has an electric impedance. Acoustic ...


5

There are analogs to filters in lots of mechanical systems. In fluid systems prone to pressure spikes perhaps because they use a fixed displacement pump, an accumulator will be used to filter out those spikes to prevent damaging other parts of the system. A vibration isolator acts in much the same way. Sometimes they're used as is. Other times, for more ...


4

2 times is the minimal sampling rate to ensure the signal can be possibly measured. This is called the Nyquist frequency. It shows that if your sampling rate is twice the frequency of the signal, you measure at least 2 different values per period. If you would only measure 1 value, a lower frequent signal or even a constant value could fit your measurement. ...


3

No, or at least not as they are generally used and understood. Hysteresis is a nonlinear phenomenon where a variable trending in one direction tends to "pull" another variable along with it, and that other variable "sticks" until it's pulled the other way. Think of backlash in gears, or the B-H curve of a hard magnetic material. A low-pass filter is ...


2

The equation being used in code is a discrete-time implementation of the filter. The second equation you gave is a continuous-time expression of the filter dynamics. In order to create a discrete-time filter from the continuous-time dynamics the person who wrote the code used a first order approximation (backwards difference, specifically) of the derivative ...


2

A Butterworth filter is just a type of filter (there are lots of types) with a particular shape to its response. In your situation, a Butterworth filter would be used as a low-pass filter (LPF) to cut off higher-frequencies that contain noise. The filter can be implemented either on time-domain samples or on the frequency domain (after FFT), but if you want ...


2

This.... this is the content of most of a semester on digital signal processing. You said, "I found [a book on signal processing], but it is a book of 700 pages with plenty of math." Well, yes. Welcome to digital signal processing. You then said, "I was just expecting some kind of answer for dummies." Okay, Wikipedia says it's a type of filter "designed to ...


1

What you need to do is use Laplace transform to $U(t)$ so you would get $\mathcal{L}(U(t))=U(s)$ for example, if you are rusty on Laplace transforms (or their inverse), you can use wolfram alpha multiply $H(s)*U(s)$ that will get you a function of s $Y(s)$ use the inverse laplace transform to Y(s) to get the $y(t) = \mathcal{L}^{-1}(Y(s))$


1

Based on the technical data there should not be a 70-80V AC signal in the output terminal. Either you are measuring incorrectly, a wiring issue, grounding issue or defective device. Per the technical data there could be a 40mVpp residual ripple. If this is an issue I suggest applying a filter to pass only the DC components. Below is the high level block ...


1

The Kalman-filter is an observer, predicting the next system state based on an initial value. That prediction needs to be made based on some kind of model. The closest solution that I can come up with is a learning-based adaptive control approach, to identify the model and later use the identified model to design an observer. This requires a rudimentary ...


1

Use a filter as a noise gate. Your signal or data with it phase reversed will drive the filter the filter in turn drives a vca. The original signal is being passed through the filter proper. Then you will balance the difference in amplitude or and phase of either or both signals to remove the noise. This has the least buffer and lag time I think. Also is ...


1

First, I'm assuming that by "moving window", you mean breaking the signal up into smaller chunks and filtering each chunk separately. In the signal processing word, "moving window" would often mean an FIR filter (e.g. fir1() in matlab), but because you explicitly said you are using butterworth filter, which is an IIR filter, I assume that is not what you ...


1

The leakage current specification for power line filters is provided for applications which are sensitive to earth leakage, such as medical equipment. It can be safely ignored in a system where all inter-equipment and out-bound interconnects are balanced and run over twisted pair (noise incoming on a system earth reference is common mode noise to a properly ...


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