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In short the heat treatments in steel change the phase of iron between the following phases: Austenite Cementite Martensite Bainite Ferrite Perlite. (Actually quenching does not allow low temperature phase changes to occur, so effectively the phases are sort of "frozen" in their high temperature equivalents). Figure 1 : example of continuoous ...


9

The effects of heating-quenching a metal is explained below Transformation hardening is the heat-quench-tempering heat treatment cycle addressed earlier in this article. It's used to adjust strength and ductility to meet specific application requirements. There are three steps to transformation hardening: Cause the steel to become completely austenitic by ...


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You are mixing apples and oranges. Many steels harden by rapid cooling, but very few other metals do that; specifically, only aluminum bronze and certain titanium alloys. Many metals will strengthen by age hardening; Rapid cool softens, and then time at a lower temperature strengthens them. There are a myriad of combinations, like HSS (high-speed steels). ...


4

The other answers describe the "materials science" mechanisms of iron vs. temperature. I'm going to add this: Matter "tries" to reach a minimum energy state whenever possible. In general, then, if you cool something as slowly as possible, you'll come closest to a solid which is a perfect crystalline structure. See "annealing."...


4

If I understood correctly you are only after the stress-strain curves. Figure: Stress strain curves for different types of materials (source What's pipping) Perfectly Elastic : (referred to as Linear Elastic) returns to its original shape, and the force is proportional to the deformation (definition may vary) Perfectly plastic : (referred to in the image ...


3

Anelastic is a material that exhibits a delay in the deformation with respect to the loading. figure 1: Anelastic material bevahiour (left: wrt to time, right: stress vs. strain) (source Princeton) Visco-elastic are materials that the load to obtain the deformation also depends on the strain rate. I.e. How fast the deformation is applied. It might depend on ...


3

For small strains of stable materials, the tensile and compressive elastic moduli are equal. This is equivalent to saying that a smooth energy minimum looks like a (symmetric) parabola up close; an energy well in the shape of a parabola characterizes an ideal spring with equal elongation and contraction spring constants. This approximation works well for ...


3

TL;DR: Yes, any structure deforms if you put a load on it. Even adding an ant on top of a granite mountain will change (lower) the height of the mountain - imperceptibly so but it will still change it. The problem is that its not possible to measure it. That is the whole idea behind Young's Modulus (modulus of elasticity). Essentially, all materials behave ...


2

I'll try to be a bit more verbose than the other answers. Essentially, I believe we should arrive at the same results (although I haven't checked). Like you have surmised, the temperature difference of $\Delta T=50ºC$ will initially cause the member to expand and bridge the gap -between the wall and the copper member- up to $0,08$ mm . Then $\Delta T $ ...


2

It hasn't disappeared. You have made your hand a little warmer because your own tissue has deformed. Your hand will return to its original shape and the generated heat will be moved to the environment as radiation and by convection. If you tried too hard you could see and remember the consequences at least a while. The concrete generally happens to be much ...


2

The following graph shows you the properties of Polypropylene at high strain rates As you see here the modulus increases with increasing displacement rate (its not entirely equal to strain rate but its closely related). The effect is due to this viscous damping. Polymers usually are more strongly affected, in terms of modulus and ultimate tensile strength. ...


2

Anelastic materials have an element of time delay between stress and strain, and a time-dependent relaxation of strain. Wikipeidia link But the viscoelastic materials have both properties of elastic and viscous materials when undergoing deformation. Viscous materials resist shear flow. And have defusion of atoms under stress as compared to bond stretching ...


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Probably the value for the torsion related modulus for 316L should be close to 79[GPa], compared to 200-210 [GPa] for tension. The shear modulus for isotropic materials can be analytically calculated as $$G = \frac{E}{2\cdot(1+\nu)}$$ where: G is the shear modulus E is the tensile modulus $\nu$ is the Poisson's ratio. You can see a derivation in the ...


1

I believe the answer to this question depends on what kind of perspective you use. I won’t get into details on the two materials type as they have already been well described in other replies. I will focus on what is my point of view on this: from an engineering standpoint I believe the two materials make sense. In the way that stress applied to the ...


1

This is not to answer your questions but the comment on the modulus of a material in the plastic range, which I consider is undefined rather than zero because both the stress and its increment are non-zero. The upper graph is the stress-strain curve of rubber. The lower graph is the stress-strain curve of silicon rubber. (Note the line between the two points ...


1

When you push the concrete wall the following happens. your body starts to firm up from the major muscle groups around your back and waist core and gets ready for heavy lifting. Some muscles just tighten your waist and push the disks on your lower backbone tight together causing realignment on them. from there a complex hierarchy of neurons shoots orders ...


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I made mistake on my earlier response (deleted). Allow me to try it again. Please let me know if there is mistake.


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We know that the spring and the copper bar reach an equilibrium at Fs =Fc. $ Fc = KcXc$ where: $Kc =\frac{(\text{Young modulus of copper})A}{L}$ $Fs =KsXs$ $KcXc=KsXs$ $ Xc/Xs= Ks/Kc$ and we already know $Xc-0.08-Xs= 1.325 -166.5*1.325/(Ks+Kc)$ I let you handle the rest.


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