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What is the physical reasoning behind metal becoming stronger and harder if heat treated?

In short the heat treatments in steel change the phase of iron between the following phases: Austenite Cementite Martensite Bainite Ferrite Perlite. (Actually quenching does not allow low ...
NMech's user avatar
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9 votes

What is the physical reasoning behind metal becoming stronger and harder if heat treated?

The effects of heating-quenching a metal is explained below Transformation hardening is the heat-quench-tempering heat treatment cycle addressed earlier in this article. It's used to adjust strength ...
r13's user avatar
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7 votes

Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?

You could try a bath of concentrated acid. As long as you could maintain circulation so the concentration was fairly constant, a spring presents a very uniform cross-section and should be dissolved at ...
Gonzonator's user avatar
6 votes
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How to Calculate the Minimum Radius a Rod Can Can Be Bent Staying in the Elastic Range?

If we're staying within the realms of beam theory, we can go with this approach which is valid for any material that exhibits linear-elastic behaviour before yield: The curvature of a beam is related ...
Robbie van Leeuwen's user avatar
6 votes
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Does perfectly elastic and perfectly plastic material make any sense?

If I understood correctly you are only after the stress-strain curves. Figure: Stress strain curves for different types of materials (source What's pipping) Perfectly Elastic : (referred to as ...
NMech's user avatar
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6 votes

What is the physical reasoning behind metal becoming stronger and harder if heat treated?

You are mixing apples and oranges. Many steels harden by rapid cooling, but very few other metals do that; specifically, only aluminum bronze and certain titanium alloys. Many metals will strengthen ...
blacksmith37's user avatar
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5 votes

What is the physical reasoning behind metal becoming stronger and harder if heat treated?

The other answers describe the "materials science" mechanisms of iron vs. temperature. I'm going to add this: Matter "tries" to reach a minimum energy state whenever possible. In ...
Carl Witthoft's user avatar
4 votes

Is strain energy the same as potential energy, or something differen?

This has been asked and answered numerous times before: https://www.quora.com/Why-is-strain-energy-equal-to-1-2*force*displacement-What-about-the-remaining-half basically, it's because you're ...
Jonathan R Swift's user avatar
4 votes

Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?

By "strength" do you mean stiffness/modulus? The modulus does not change with tensile or yield strengths. Make it with wire of 1/2 the diameter for 1/2 the modulus. Acid will hydrogen stress crack ...
blacksmith37's user avatar
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4 votes
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Do all structures deform if put a load on them?

TL;DR: Yes, any structure deforms if you put a load on it. Even adding an ant on top of a granite mountain will change (lower) the height of the mountain - imperceptibly so but it will still change it....
NMech's user avatar
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3 votes
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Viscoelasticity and Hyperelastic model, history and difference

The hyperelastic and viscoelastic material models are both constitutive relations that relate: Stress and strain, in the case of hyperelasticity. Stress, strain and strain rate, in the case of ...
user190081's user avatar
3 votes

Viscoelasticity and Hyperelastic model, history and difference

Let's look at some (very rough) definitions: 1) Viscoelasticity = elastic behavior that changes if the rate of application of the load is changed or, if the load is kept fixed, the change in the ...
Biswajit Banerjee's user avatar
3 votes

Stiffness of highly compressible materials

Material science can almost always be broken down into "generally useful" and "specifically useful". The link in the comments demonstrates a commonly used statistic that describes behavior of foams ...
Mark's user avatar
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3 votes
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How to properly validate transverse isotropic elasticity Finite Element Code

Definitions Before we can answer your question, let us look at two standard definitions of terms (from ASME Guide for Verification and Validation in Computational Solid Mechanics) : 1) Verification:...
Biswajit Banerjee's user avatar
3 votes

How to calculate the diameter of a transmission shaft from RPM & Torque

The elastic modulus would give you how much it would twist in use, you would need the tensile strength: taken from engineering toolbox http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/torsion-shafts-d_947.html : <...
L Selter's user avatar
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3 votes

How to deal with rotation of an element in theory of elasticity?

The answer to this lies in the defining equation for the strains that you have supplied. The full displacement gradient $u_{i,j}$ (where the $\bullet_{,j}$ represents the $j^{\rm th}$ derivative) can ...
ap21's user avatar
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3 votes

How much does the elasticity (Young's Modulus) of concrete and asphalt change with ambient temperature?

For concrete and asphalt, you would be more interested in the properties of creep, which is always a function of temperature. For example, there is an entire wikipedia page about this at this time, ...
Mark's user avatar
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3 votes
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Flexural modulus for a beam fixed at one end

The fundamental beam equation is $$\dfrac{\text{d}^2}{\text{d}x^2}\left(EI\dfrac{\text{d}^2w}{\text{d}x^2}\right) = q$$ Which basically translates to "the fourth derivative of the deflection ...
Wasabi's user avatar
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3 votes

Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?

Probably just another hypotetical idea: If you squeeze the wire from circular into a square shape, it will have about 54% of the original rate. If you squeeze it slightly more into a rectangle, it ...
Ingo's user avatar
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3 votes

Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?

Another hypothetical way to reduce the amount of material in the spring would be to fix it in a jig stretched to double its normal length. Then, heat it sufficiently to anneal it and remove the ...
alephzero's user avatar
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3 votes
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Can the Elastic Modulus of an isotropic material be different in Tension and in compression?

For small strains of stable materials, the tensile and compressive elastic moduli are equal. This is equivalent to saying that a smooth energy minimum looks like a (symmetric) parabola up close; an ...
Chemomechanics's user avatar
3 votes
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Is there any difference between an-elastic and visco-elastic materials?

Anelastic is a material that exhibits a delay in the deformation with respect to the loading. figure 1: Anelastic material bevahiour (left: wrt to time, right: stress vs. strain) (source Princeton) ...
NMech's user avatar
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3 votes

Difference between Stiffness (K) and Modulus of Elasticity (E)?

"$E$", "$K$", and "hardness", all indicate stiffness but are measured and used in different manners. $E$ - Elastic modulus is defined as the slope of the tangent line to ...
r13's user avatar
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3 votes
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Is there any special coating or paint that will strongly bond to an automobile tire's tread and can be driven on?

It is stated here that you get about 1mm of tire wear every 3600 miles. https://www.blackcircles.com/helpcentre/tyres/how-many-miles-per-1mm-of-tread-depth You're unlikely to find any coating more ...
DKNguyen's user avatar
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2 votes

Flexural modulus for a beam fixed at one end

'I' doesn't change for the different situations. 'I' is a property of the cross-section of the beam - a rectangle of width w and depth h. The Eb equations are correct for the situations set out, with ...
achrn's user avatar
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2 votes

Number of layers in a laminated steel transplant, using Young's Modulus

This is quite a poorly-worded question. After all, how do the layers interact with one another? Can they be considered to be fully bonded to one another? I assume not, because then they've behave as ...
Wasabi's user avatar
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2 votes

How much does the elasticity (Young's Modulus) of concrete and asphalt change with ambient temperature?

The modulus of elasticity is not going to significantly change for concrete in ambient temperatures but there are provisos. The assumption is that you are talking about set concrete that has achieved ...
Rhodie's user avatar
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2 votes
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Young's modulus for composite auxetic material

Rather than thinking about a Young's modulus directly, the problem becomes easier to grasp if you think in terms of a relationship between the load and displacement, and subsequently between stress ...
Biswajit Banerjee's user avatar
2 votes

Calculate or approximate force required to expand a thin-walled elastic cylinder held rigidly at both ends?

This is a link to a solved problem similar to your question. inflation of an annular cylinder In their example the two ends are fixed, no traction of cylinder, meaning the length of cylinder doesn't ...
kamran's user avatar
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2 votes
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Thick walled cylinder theory - Stress/strain in ballooned out tube

A good place to start is Ogden's book Nonlinear elastic deformations, section 5.2.3: "Extension and inflation of a circular cylindrical tube". For a material with a strain energy function: $$ W = F(...
Biswajit Banerjee's user avatar

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