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Figure 1. A concrete sleeper mould with reinforcing steel. Concrete sleepers are reinforced with pre-stressed steel. Image source: BFT-International. The sleepers will act as heat sinks during the day soaking up heat from the ground. At night this heat is let off. The steel will conduct heat to the ends of the sleepers warming the end-plates and supplying ...


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It means that the particles rub and bounce against each other, which removes any “odd” bits that may otherwise cling to the proper surface of the particle.


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They have collected heat during the day . And being solid they conduct heat better than the loose gravel. So they collect more heat and when cool the heat is conducted back to the surface better than the loose gravel. Under some humidity and temperature conditions the few degrees of temperature causes faster evaporation from the solid concrete. You ...


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The de-facto standard way of getting all the water out of a cyrostat before cooling it is to pump it out with a vacuum pump, then back-fill with dry gas from a cylinder. Nitrogen is cheap and easy, helium is preferred if the cryostat will be cooled below -190C (but I guess "extremely low temperatures" probably isn't that low). Depending on the achievable ...


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If you are only interested in temperature, flow rate, and drying rate, then you could consider the following quantities for a given air temperature $T$: How much heat you need for evaporation (based on how much water is on the glassware)? How much heat you need to bring the entire mass of glassware to that temperature? What volume of air do you need to ...


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