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This is a difficult question to answer in general. Some point to consider are : Differences in density will cause one fluid to tend to sink under the other, this will me faster or slower depending on their relative densities. This immediately introduces some energy into the system. BUT their viscosities will also affect how that affects mixing. For ...

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Consider the hard drives of yester-year and more recent. They had a hole for pressure equalization (to control the bulging of pivot fix-points) with a patch of Gortex(R) covering the hole to control liquid transfer. Water vapor could come and go with temperature and pressure variation and they held some of our most precious data. WVTR (water vapor ...

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A definition of a diffuser is: "The (divergent) diffuser is a duct so shaped that the fluid flowing through it decelerates, the pressure increasing from inlet to outlet." This is from Engineering Thermodynamics Work & Heat Transfer, Rogers & Mayhew, page 38. A duct is assumed to have neither a convergent or divergent shape.

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Regarding $k_p$: So, you've got $N_1$ a flux in $mol/ s \cdot m^2$ and a partial pressures $p_i$ in $Pa$. $k_p$ has got to connect those, and make the units work out. Exactly what $k_p$ is depends on the flow of the gas. If the gas is stationary, mass transfer will by diffusion alone. Unfortunately, that process doesn't have a steady-state solution in a ...

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Protons are not the positive carriers, holes are. In a P-N junction, you have donor impurities on the n-side and acceptor impurities on the p-side. Acceptor impurities will produce holes, since they will capture electrons, making the p-side "more positive" while the opposite occurs on the n-side. When there's separation of charges, you get a electrical field,...

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As the comments suggest, it's generally something the manufacturer is comfortable standing behind & waranteeing. While you're correct that a seal should either hold or breach, in practice a "soft" seal such as an o-ring can be subject to creep under pressure. Given enough time, that deformation will lead to a leak. FWIW, my advice would be only to ...

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if the refractive indices of the two fluids are different, you may be able to use a diffractometer to measure the extent of the diffusion.

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Convert both the pressure and concentration terms as mole fractions. Now you have y for gas phase mole fraction and x for liquid phase mole fraction. Henry's law is taken as am equilibrium relation in your question, so the equilibrium diagram(y vs x) is just a straight line through the origin with slope H'. Taking the gas side mass transfer coefficient on ...

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