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Yes, shear flow in a cross sectional element will always be in the same direction as the shear force in that same cross sectional element because the shear flow is essentially the distribution of the shear force. Confusion may arise due to the distinction between the "shear force" in an element and the externally applied load that is producing said shear. ...


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Propably the confusion comes from different conventions used for the internal forces. If we make a cut at any section of a member, two internal actions are defined, at opposite directions, each applied to one of the two faces of the cut. Consider as an example the following cantilever beam problem, with two cuts: The shear force, and the shear stresses have ...


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For a C channel with the following dimensions: b = width of the flange measured to the center of the web, inches or mm c = Distance to the shear center, inches or mm h = Height of section measured to the center of flanges, inches or mm I = The second moment of area, in^4 or mm^4 t = flange thickness, inches or mm $ c=\frac{b^2h^2t}{4I_x}$ If we apply ...


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Okay, one program I found that can help calculate the different properties of a section is "ShapeDesigner SaaS" the reason that I am not doing it manually is that I would have to break it into at least 35+ parts. This program calculates it in a few moments. Hope this helps some people.


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The geometrical tolerances are usually smaller for cold-formed sections. The material properties and also be different. For example the final grain structure of the metal will be different, and cold-formed sections usually have higher residual stresses than hot-formed. Surface finishes like galvanizing can only be done "hot." This contains quite a lot of ...


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For any shape, if you know the two moments, $I_{xx}$ and $I_{yy}$, there is a fascinating amount of study to arrive at the principal moments. You'd need to know $I_{xy}$ as well, which is harder to find tables on. Fortunately, an angle simply can be broken into two rectangles. Rectangles by definition have 0 for their product of inertia. So, the product ...


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