13

I'll give you some considerations that you may not be aware of. Also, take the disclaimer that I'm in the US (but construction is construction, right?) Frequently moving construction cones/barrels along the road is less efficient than setting them out once and only making minor adjustments to their location. Depending on the type of work being done, some ...


7

Quite simple, lift it up there with another crane that is more expensive once it's up there the expensive crane is sent away and they can use the "cheap" crane for construction. Afterwards the expensive crane returns to get the construction crane down. but most of the times they are from the ground up and attached to the building (see image) The crane can ...


7

Tower cranes are a very significant cost on any construction site, and so builders will usually only use as many cranes as is necessary. I work for a construction scheduling company, and the one of the biggest factors for deciding on the number of cranes and their location is access. Obviously the crane needs to be able to access all parts of the building ...


7

Bulk volume is the total volume of void and solid material. Solid volume is the volume occupied by the solid material only, i.e. not including porosity. Phrased mathematically: $V_{bulk}=V_{void}+V_{solid}$. If an aggregate is poured into a container full of water, the displaced water reflects the solid volume only, since the space between the aggregate ...


5

The crane operator at the top of the tower doesn't just have a view of the load being lifted. He/she can see the entire surrounding area and take account of any potential hazardous situations that might develop, for example other workers moving about who are not aware of what the crane is intending to do, vehicles being driven into potentially dangerous ...


5

The likely reason is that simply pouring concrete over it would not have contained it. The site is smoldering and emits gases of various types. It also has voids and shifts around, various areas collapsing into pockets. If it were covered with concrete, the concrete would develop cracks and radioactive particles would be emitted. The sarcophagus structure ...


4

The original sarcophagus built around 1986 has some issues and it was estimated in 1988 that it would only last 20-30 years (here we are). Check out this link that explains some of the main issues with the current sarcophagus; namely structural instability. Trying to repair the current sarcophagus is impractical. The new confinement structure is designed ...


4

You can build this wall as you would any other. Given its size, the fact that it's a ring becomes irrelevant, which means that for all intents and purposes, it can be designed and constructed with the same concepts as that of a linear wall. This can be demonstrated thusly: the wall is 1000 meters in diameter, which gives it a perimeter of approximately 3141 ...


3

It is not trivial to replace human vision with a camera in this sort of situation. it is difficult to reproduce good depth perception with cameras the human eye can change focus quickly and intuitively, in order to scan between near and distant objects you would need to be constantly refocusing the camera and potentially missing information out of the ...


3

I am a native English speaker and practising civil engineer who had never heard of ISO 12006-2 until this question, and if you had talked about "Construction Entities" I wouldn't have had a clue what you were on about. Consider using "4 pump stations and 3 water mains", as this is clear. If you want a word which covers all 7 "construction entities" I ...


2

From 1924 to 1932 Sydney Harbour Bridge was constructed. It used two creeper cranes on both sides of the arch during construction to hoist people & materials. The crane operators couldn't see what they were hoisting, "they were given orders by telephone from officials working some 400 ft below". One of the pictures in the above link shows inside the ...


2

This a bit late but I will add to the answers already given, with some additional technical and historical perspective. Portland cement contains four Bogues compounds - C3A, C2S, C3S and C4AF. Of these, one is not hydraulic - C3A. C3A (tricalcium aluminate) was introduced to Portland cement during the 1920's as it was found to reduce the heat required for ...


2

I'd say it's most likely a time saving operation. I'm sure a project manager looked at the situation and decided it was beneficial to the schedule and productivity to have a second crane operating as well. Depending on the area and height of the building there's only so much you can do with 1 crane; everything takes time. If you can run two cranes at ...


2

In the Philippines, there are 2 types of labor rates that we consider. We have provincial and non-provincial rates. For non-provincial rates, we can go as far as 45% material cost, while on provincial rates, we only go up to 35% of the material cost. This is due to our present labor rules and regulations (which i hope should be changed soon). But the above ...


2

Your first photo looks like it is a concrete structure and the bricks are only glued onto it.


2

As an engineer (with partner also an engineer) who designed a 4 bed house to exceed the energy requirements of the building regs, and by a huge amount that some new builds are just beginning to match its performance some 15years later I have to point out that a good engineer or two, and a good architect are all that is needed. So, had to brush up on some ...


2

A house or a development is the result of coordination between the architect and the civil engineer. But let's make no mistakes, civil engineering (the main study of the civil engineers) umbrellas many sub-disciplines that each carries the weight and contributes to the success of the said projects, whether a single residential house or multi-unit development....


2

Standards are experts common sense thoughts on the minimum safe ways to design, build and operate something. Standards are designed for voluntary use and do not impose any regulations. However, laws and regulations may refer to certain standards and make compliance with them compulsory. A building code usually refers to multiple standards, with specific ...


2

The critical path is: "the longest path of planned activities [...] to the end of the project" Wikipedia In what I would call "purely theoretical" Critical Path Analysis, the length of the project is the length of the critical path. Therefore tasks on the critical path have no slack by definition. In the real world there may be external dates setting ...


2

This was intended more a comment regarding the third image, (however I opted to put a The confusing part for me is, the arch like section in the middle, and the differences between the style of the walls, and the ceiling (which appears to be wood). So it seems to me to be some type of renovation. If you blow up the image, you will notice that the final row ...


1

A good carpenter would cut all the studs by a table saw or miter saw correctly. Type 5 (light wood frame) construction, has built-in measures to deal with these potential imperfections. eg, 4 by post under beams, staggered overlap on the double plate, double stud under window headers, etc. Non the less, due to some careless drilling by the plumber or ...


1

It depends on the primary function of the stud that is floating. Two results are expected: Immediately damages the sheathing by tearing if it has a joist or another loaded stud directly over, or even adjacent to, it, as the gap will be closed by the load. "Progressive failure" or "no failure" if the stud is away from the location of ...


1

These are veneered brickwork used over either concrete or steel structure with proper dowels or fasteners supporting the bricks. These fasteners are regulated by code to support both vertical loads and lateral loads of a potential earthquake and also depending on the type of the building and its function meet fire codes as well. . Here is an example of false ...


1

Code, as it relates to construction, is used mainly as guidelines in cases where there is an obligation to design and build structures or part of them in a certain way. ASCE is just a part of the code. It can have a wide scope, such as classifying building types and their functions. It can classify the behavior of natural phenomena like earthquakes, soils, ...


1

Practically, the geologist will do boring at different location at the site, we call it Bore Hole. Based on their preliminary assessment, they will decide the depth of boring. Or by experience or trial & error. Whatever it is, the main thing we are looking for is hard layer. For it to be hard rock or hard dense sand layer. Basically we can get a soil ...


1

Local governing agencies have the general geology information of the sites. And building departments usually recommend what kind if soils investigation and how many bores and how deep. If the soil condition is generally known to be good they even have pre approved sheets about the bearing capacity of the soil and type and depth of foundation required. If ...


1

Officially Gypsum panels should be stored inside where they are not exposed to inclement weather, the Gypsum Association states "Gypsum panel products shall not be stored in areas of excessive humidity", unfortunately they do not specify what constitutes excessive humidity. However, exposure of Gypsum to high moisture levels can lead to water stains, ...


1

Wikipedia explains the term "Design Element" quite well. I don't expect there is a formal "official definition" of the term Design Element, but the relevance to BIM (Building Information Modelling) seems fairly obvious. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_design_elements_and_principles https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphic_design#...


1

I would suggest that you take a look at Architectural Engineering Professional Societies in your local area. Most of these societies have recommended educational curriculum and continues educational opportunities. Attach is a link to Architectural Engineering Institute which I believe is part of American Society of Civil Engineers. Another organization that ...


1

They lift it up in pieces and assemble the crane in place using a second mobile crane they bring in to build it. The heaviest parts will be the winch assembly and the counter weights.


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