This issue was resolved by adding an upward PVC loop (about 1 ft higher than the highest point of circuit) and installing a pressure relief valve, also referred to as a vacuum breaker, in this loop. A vacuum breaker is typically installed on roof pool solar heater systems to drain water off the roof when pump isn't running. This puts a small amount of air ...
In case nobody else answers I have found this in UK Building Regs A - Structure.
Limiting penetrations without additional structural support to 0.1 m2 at 2 m centres seems like a reasonable enough rule of thumb.
If you are referring to the contribution of cement in the tensile strength of composite RCC system, then -to be on the safe side- it should be probably be set to zero. i.e. all tensile loads are carried by the reinforced elements (e.g. steel bars etc).
Cement does not have particularly good tensile properties and it is known to behave in a brittle manner. It ...
Although as mentioned by others this is not universally accepted, in my opinion the reason that the 0.2% strain was used for proof stress, is that it offers a more straight forward comparison with the yield stress of steel.
Steel has been (and probably still is) the most common material for structural engineering. However, it has distinct differences from ...
Without having access to AISC 360-16, but from experience from other structural codes, I'll hazard a guess.
you can check for allowable stresses with respect to:
Also, I am not certain, the context of the word 'element', because that could include buckling, etc.
You have to install a spring loaded check valve after the pump. I am attaching a link just to help you get an idea, not promoting the item.
A common approach in residential areas where I live is to occasionally move a lane a car width towards the edge of the road every few thousand feet then back, with a small median and curb between the lanes. Essentially creating a slalom run. Probably not ideal in congested urban areas as it uses 1.5 times the space for the road but useful in suburban/rural ...
Actually none of your options are correct in my opinion, and that is NOT just because I am Canadian and you are NOT using the metric system. When you want to give the invert of a pipe, or box culvert, you are measuring to the inside of the pipe and the lowest point on said pipe. The reason your possible answers are not correct, is that you are going in the ...