23

I am not sure about this particular design. But in public places, the benches are designed to provide temporary comfort but discourage using them as a vagrant or homeless hang out, hence designed subtle discomfort. Also, they have to be easy to scan by security cameras and not have hard-to-see corners easy to hide contraband material or even explosives! ...


14

Where concrete is exposed to water, the water is going to permeate concrete no matter what you do (for the most part). The voids introduced by air entrainment allow the water some place to expand into when it does eventually freeze, thereby reducing the pressure on the concrete to crack. Edit 2021/02/17 to add some supplementary information: ACI 201-16, &...


7

Benches are not usually engineered as such. They are being made by furniture designers, (landscape/interior) architects etc. Now generally these professions put a lot of work into making their items novel in some way (Even if that novelty feels stupid to you). Reason for this is that they are being selected that way from catalogs, trade magazines and display ...


7

The air entrained in the concrete causes discontinuous voids, which will not cause water to penetrate the concrete. Water will permeate through the bleeding pores which are continuous cavities. The entrained air bubbles are small and will only allow space for the freezing water to expand.


2

In the bench that you show, the slats are supported and held in alignment by the end brackets. The armrests are supported by, and in line with, the legs. You could incorporate the end brackets into the leg structure but this would make for a more complicated moulding that either doesn't allow the same mixture of materials or has too many holes drilled in it ...


1

I don't know about image editing but for the roads and railroad track transition from a straight path to a rurn there is a transition called "Spiral Easement". basically, it gradually eases into the turn and it is a 3-dimensional curve starting from a flat straight path gradually joining the turn with the transversal pitch required to make the ...


1

They are called park model RVs. There are several million of them in the US. The axles and hitch can be supplied by the tow company if you don't want to move it yourself. An even closer fit would be a FEMA trailer, which are built to minimum standard specs.


1

The key is what's called "scale separation". For continuum hydrodynamics to work, there has to exist a length scale that is much smaller than the smallest length scale on which any interesting fluid-mechanical phenomena happen, so that it's safe to treat that length scale as differentially small; yet that same length scale must also be much larger ...


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