22

They're V-Mesh panels. V-Mesh panel from Irish Wire. The offset of the vee gives rigidity in the horizontal direction. The vertical rigidity is addressed by the fence posts. It's available in 2, 3 or 4 vee depending on the panel height.


10

One point of note is that the yield region is not as cleanly defined as BCD is in the image (although most books have it that way). In reality the yield region looks like The following image is one from many actual measurement that I took years ago (its Force Displacement). You can see the jagged yield region after the elastic region. The point is that the ...


8

Bending adds rigidity. Take a piece of paper, fold it, the bend gives it a rigid form to hold more weight. V-Mesh fences are also used in equestrianism as horse fencing helps keeps predators out and provides a safe, close fence spacing to prevent hooves and legs from getting caught


5

Just enough to provide some rigidity. If that was not there then the fence panel would be very flexible.


2

Summary: There is increasing plastic behavior and decreasing elastic behavior as the sample is strained from B to C. The transition is caused by random grain orientations and variable resolved shear stress. With respect, the other answers generally have the right idea, but are missing the important meso-scale mechanism for why there is a non-linear shape ...


2

Building a structure over an existing, operating railway is hugely challenging. Simply constructing a structurally sound foundation, working over track (with moving trains), traction electrification (at typically 25kV)... many many things make building over (or even next to) an operating railway much more difficult than building further away. From the ...


2

Rubber is a hyperelastic material. It doesn't fall under the typical Ductile or Brittle categories. Percentage elongation and percentage reduction in length or area basically refers to permanent elongation or reduction, after the material has undergone any sort of plasticity (i.e. surpassing the yield strength of the material). If it experiences elongations ...


2

Generally what happens is that if when the load is removed (quasi statically) the material will return in a path which is parallel to the elastic region. Eg. for load up to E and F the following behaviour is observed. Notice that the slope of the red arrows is identical to the slope of OA section (region up to proportionality point). hysteresis If the load ...


1

TL;DR: you need to prioritize which behaviour is important and scale the load to investigate this behavior. It is very difficult to scale the load and expect to obtain the full behaviour of the structure. IMHO it is very difficult to scale the load and expect to obtain the full behaviour of the structure. Different loading conditions have different ...


1

I don't think this is a good analogy. Engineering strictly speaking isn't about the underlying science principles. People built arches before they understood the math behind it. There are engineering problems that would be hard to solve without calculus, but people didn't solve them wrong before, they were just unsolved. There are plenty of cases where ...


1

Rather than getting hung up on the words, consider their usage. The authors' definition may only make sense in a specific context that that they were trying to convey. Ductile was about the ability to draw a material into a wire. The word or its roots may even preceed quantification of structural properties, but that's somewhat irrelevant. What is ...


1

Question 1: Elastic recovery will always take place until the material surpasses the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of it. This means that when ever you load a material and if it doesn't surpass its UTS, then it won't fracture but will be longer in length (in a Tensile loading) than its initial length when unloaded. Between B and C, the material is on the ...


1

I suspect the sump will fill up and be ineffective when the water levels with the flow. Usually, they use an open channel shoot with a stepped ending to break the flow of the stream of water and by creating turbulence and hydraulic jumps dissipate the energy of the flow passively while turning most of the energy into foaming flow. The profile is designed to ...


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