The issue is certainly NOT that the chassis ground is at -100V, it's absurd. The chassis ground by definition is at equal potential for power supply and load, you can treat it like one big wire that's large enough to take all the current you could throw into it. If you put a voltmeter between a car's chassis & earth, I promise it will never read -12V.
Your understanding of the issues is good.
Q1: It's not overkill at all. All of the elements you've mentioned are needed.
Q2: The low-pass filter frequency needs to significantly attenuate all frequencies above 1/2 the sampling frequency. It makes sense for a 'low fi' arrangement to reduce the filter frequency a bit so as to simplify filter design which ...
If the switch is ON then the OR gate output will turn on. The NOT gate will not affect the OR gate.
If the switch is turned OFF (having been on) then OR will turn off which turns NOT on which turns OR off again and the cycle repeats.
The speed of oscillation will be determined by the propagation delay of the gates.
Would ... the output end up being analog?
The following pins appear to be pogo pins or spring loaded pins
Below are example of pogo pins
The following appear to be swage mount connectors
Here is an example
How to pair the Retekess SU-668 Restaurant Paging System
Diode Like you assumed
Panels: These are the PV panenls that produce current. They produce DC current I and DC voltage V
Inverter: the inverter converts the DC current and Voltage from the panels to AC voltage and current, which is in sync with the Grid. This part is responsible for converting the energy from the panels into the energy that the grid can ...