17

A yahkchal is an example of a type of passively cooled building in Iran They utilise a combination of passive evaporative cooling and thick thermally insulating walls in order to keep the interior temperatures low enough. First, wind is directed into underground aquifers known as qanat. They are then cooled due to the low humidity desert air causing water ...


16

Braces. They come in a variety of shapes. K frames, X frames, eccentric frames, etc. . . . .


12

I do not know, I've never been there and I have no other information other than what is in your question. However, ... I'd say that best guess, until somebody who knows more presents, is your suggestion of now-unused telephone booths. On the wall are two plates. These are at the same height in each case and consistent with connecting a telephone. Other ...


9

Insulation, shade, the use of low thermal conductivity materials and utilising any cool breeze at any time of the day are going to be key to passively cooling buildings in a hot climate. Different solutions will be more applicable to houses than non residential buildings. The other thing to consider is whether the climate hot and dry or hot and humid. In ...


7

I am a practicing structural engineer with plenty of wood experience. That said, this is a bit of a tricky note because I believe it was probably written by an architect on a set of architectural drawings (as opposed to by a structural engineer on a set of structural drawings). Therefore, I think the note includes information about both the structural makeup ...


6

The main reason is economics. Who is going to pay for all the additional lines? The other part to this is, will the additional lines have enough passengers to make them profitable and sustainable? If the lines are on the Earth's surface how much land will they occupy and could the land be better used for something else? If the lines are underground, or ...


6

Keep drawing combinations. You forgot Østerås to Vestli, Østerås to Bergkrystallen, and every other combination of possible origin and destination. This breaks down in a hurry. By the time you split up all the trains to hit every destination, you end up with only a few trains a day going where you want to go. Since you don't want to travel then, you ...


5

The likely reason is that simply pouring concrete over it would not have contained it. The site is smoldering and emits gases of various types. It also has voids and shifts around, various areas collapsing into pockets. If it were covered with concrete, the concrete would develop cracks and radioactive particles would be emitted. The sarcophagus structure ...


5

Concrete isn't a good material for such a small model. I would suggest foamboard. You can get it at craft stores. If you can't find half inch thick material, laminate two layers of quarter inch board. Architects use foamboard all the time. You can glue it with Elmers. If you really need heavier duty stuff, there is concrete wall board used in bathrooms. You ...


5

Diurnal swings, i.e. temperature differences between day and night, are also an important consideration in hot climates. If the temperature at night drops to something acceptable, you can use night purge to cool a thermal mass (e.g. concrete slabs or walls, phase change materials if you'd like to get fancy). This works well together with a well insulated ...


5

The general term for these structures in 3-d is a space frame. "Just making a triangle array" is a pretty good starting point, because three bars forming a triangle make a rigid structure without any bracing at the corners, unlike four bars forming a rectangle which can be "squashed" out of shape. Another key to making a stiff lightweight structure is to ...


4

Such measures do exist, but they don't always prevent careless drivers from ignoring the measures and crashing into low bridges. One bridge that I know of has been hit at least 100 times and has been hit many times since a safety gantry was installed in 2016 to prevent such crashes. This is a picture of the safety gantry that was installed. The the bottom ...


4

This answer comes from my experience in mechanical engineering, a structural engineer might have a different perspective. It is difficult to come up with a standard set of terms for planes or axes in mechanical and structural engineering since each there are so many different types of work within each discipline. There are probably some specialist-specific ...


4

It doesn't appear so: (screen shot from google maps.)


4

Farther from the equator, a passive house is mainly a very well insulated house with good exposure to solar lighting for passive solar heating. However in hot climate, one has to rethink completely the design. Here what matters more is the way you can use the night "cool" air to cool the house. Also you have to take great care to shading as best as you ...


4

CFD I ran this situation through a couple of simple 2D CFD models. As you can see from the pictures below, one way to keep debris from gathering in this area is to increase the velocity of wind in the corner. To do this, you need to place an obstacle that will direct the wind into the corner. Original Situation: Obstacle Added: Even with this, there will ...


4

The original sarcophagus built around 1986 has some issues and it was estimated in 1988 that it would only last 20-30 years (here we are). Check out this link that explains some of the main issues with the current sarcophagus; namely structural instability. Trying to repair the current sarcophagus is impractical. The new confinement structure is designed ...


4

I have a background in acoustics, noise control and vibrations. I haven't done much in the way of residential applications though. Honestly, your best bet is to lay down heavy carpet with an underlayment designed to maximize sound absorption, like this one. That doesn't mean that your problem will go away, or even be affected significantly.Since you're ...


4

There are many ways that one can achieve natural cooling and heating. However, the best solutions are very dependent on the situation. Also, the problem with most of these solutions is that you'd need to plan ahead (don't expect to incorporate them easily into an existing structure). And finally almost all of them are most effective for one or two story ...


4

The generic term is Bracing. You will often find it further qualified as Cross Bracing, Diagonal Bracing or Triangular Bracing, depending on the whim of the person doing it.


3

The section on the precursor to modern suspension bridges, in the wikipedia article that you mentioned, talks about bridges of the "Tibetan saint and bridge-builder Thangtong Gyalpo" and points out that they "did not include a suspended deck bridge which is the standard on all modern suspension bridges today". I confess I am only guessing, and haven't found ...


3

A mechanical solution using movable rods: Have 7 rods with pieces of rubber around them. The rods should be positioned so that you can move them leftwards or rightwards. When the rubber piece touches the disc, it should stop the rotation. Place the rubber pieces on either the left side or the right side of each disc. This way when you move a rod to the left,...


3

The tallest masonry building erected is the Philadelphia City Hall . It is 548 feet high. The issue with building masonry structures is the walls have to support the weight of the building and the weight of the wall itself. Bricks & stone are heavy, so for a masonry wall to be tall the width of the wall at its base needs to wide - it can taper to a ...


3

The location makes sense from a civil engineering perspective. The bridge has to span the river channel without being washed away during flooding events. A narrow, steep canyon works well for this because the bridge can be built high enough over the water without it having to be too long. The height gives it protection from floods, the steepness of the ...


3

In the middle east and specifically Iran they have used passive air conditioning for centuries. They build the neighborhoods with the houses tightly packed next to each other, reducing the exposure surface. They use high thermal capacity materials as thick clay walls and roofs in combination with the vertical evaporative draft of the underground canals up ...


3

Shielding them by a dam would have been more costly. And being hidden under a 65 meters deep wall into the water of the Aswan dam would make them visually disappear, and lose their glory. As it is now they preserve the same commanding view and show the perspective the original artisans who designed these monuments had envisioned. . A scale model showing the ...


3

A non jargon terminology (i.e. non scientific architectural) would be permanent room divider or wall divider or plain divider. Probably the proper architectural terminology is mullion is a vertical element that forms a division between units of a window or screen, or is used decoratively Figure: Mullion (image source: Wikipedia) In French you mint find ...


2

Depending on the rotational speed and the torque required, you may be able to use something that resembles a pin tumbler lock (I can't put more than 2 links in a post so no link to Wikipedia..) The inner, rotating shaft will have holes in it, into which small cylindrical pins will be inserted: (pins are red, shaft is black) An inner rod with some sort of ...


2

For aviation, aerospace, and naval (and to a lesser degree automotive) engineering, the three axes are pitch, yaw and roll axes - with the names pitch, yaw and roll corresponding to rotational motion around these, and sway, heave and surge for translational motion along them. Velocities in these are groundspeed/speed over ground(SOG) (measured along travel ...


2

In engineering there are four views, or axes that I can think of: longitudinal - which is parallel to the longest vertical side of an object, cross-sectional - which is parallel to the shortest vertical side of an object & is at right angles to the longitudinal view/axis. plan - which is usually the horizontal view or axis, as viewed from above the ...


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