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Merging the nodes is equivalent of a continuous body (see welded). Using a contact definition, means that there are two separate surfaces which are connected through a layer/thin film (although this is a simplification). Using the contact definition means that usually there is a surface and adjacent nodes and/or elements are checked against that surface (to ...


Compute the wave velocity in a 3.05-m-diameter steel penstock having a wall thickness of 25 mm if it: i. is embedded in a concrete dam; ii. is anchored at the upstream end; and iii. has expansion joints throughout its length.

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