# Questions tagged [temperature]

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### Can you heat the air in a box to heat plastic inside box?

I am working on a project where I need to heat the air inside a box to heat up a 3d print inside it. As of now, I am using a heat gun to heat up the air. I was wondering two things: How can I add hot ...
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### Steel expanding in a tight space

Hypothetical question: What would happen if I were to cool down a steel cylinder to make it contract, and then slide it all the way into a cylindrical hole in a room-temperature solid steel box? The ...
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### How to 'normalise' the effect of temperature on pressure to determine an accurate leak rate

I want to determine the leak rate of a container. I pumped it with air and measured the temperature and pressure within the container. What I observed is that, due to fluctuations of temperature in ...
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### What standards or industry guidance define a top temperature for human contact to surfaces?

I'm looking for guidance to define how hot is too hot when related to human safety. I have heard of a general limit from OSAH of 60 °C (140 °F) being ok for contact up to 5 sec. Are there better ...
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### Modeling 1D Transient Heat Transfer: Wall/Room interface

Consider a 1D adiabatic room (of volume V) with a wall conducting heat on its left side. The wall is solid and heat conduction in it is driven by the common heat equation. There is convection at the ...
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### Temperature measurement in a process pipe

I am going through a PID in which the line size was increased from 2 inch to 4 inch for temperature measurement and then decreased to 2 inch using two reduces. What is the need for reducers before ...
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### Will hundreds of wood-burning fires damage 1/2" thick steel? [closed]

I have 1/2" and 3/8" thick x 24" diameter steel pipes that are typically used for natural gas transport, but in my case they take the shape of horizontal wood-burning cookers. I am ...
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### What are the effects of temperature on optical fiber waveform

I am attempting to measure temperature using a signal through an optical fiber. If I send a waveform through an optical fiber, how would temperature affect it? I've looked here (Calculating ...
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### High Fan Speed Not Cooling As Expected (PWM, Arduino)

We have a system involving a fan blowing air through a box which contains a small (but constant) heat source and a temperature sensor. The fan speed is controlled with PWM. As PWM (and hence fan speed)...
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### Resources for strength calculation for an outside aluminium loft ladder and what about it becoming brittle in cold weather?

I have been thinking for years about building an outside stair / loft ladder to climb from a platform to another one, one stair higher (3 meters). However, I never studied material strength, and I don'...
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### Up to what temperature, can titanium be safely used?

I was thinking about the realization of a pottery oven, and I wondered which material I could to make the inner walls. Most often the inner walls seem to be made of some kind of hard mineral wool. I ...
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### Using an NIST Calibrated Thermistor Meter with uncalibrated or unknown probes

Background: I recently purchased a NIST calibrated thermistor meter for measuring temperature at work. This Digisense (20250-94) meter came from a seemingly reputable company, Cole Parmer, and we ...
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### Why materials with preferably a negative temperature coefficient for heating elements?

As far as I understood heating elements make use out of Joule heating. Hence, I wonder why one would preferably use materials with a negative temperature coefficient, therefore? Isn't it, that, the ...
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### Mollier diagram and reading the relative humidity when knowing the dry- and wet bulb temperatures

I initially put this one on the physics-side, but this might be a more appropriate place: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/666116/mollier-diagram-and-reading-the-relative-humidity-when-...
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### In what way does plating a bimetallic strip affect its displacement?

I've got a mechanism that uses a bimetallic strip; for aesthetic reasons I'd like to electroplate it with a thin layer of gold - how does this affect the relative displacement of a bimetallic strip in ...
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### Why is a throttling valve isenthalpic whilst a nozzle is not?

From my understanding, Nozzle's and throttling valve are devices which both trade pressure for velocity, so they increase velocity at the expense of having to decrease the pressure. If we examine ...
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### What does it mean by average kinetic energy of molecules as temperature?

We say kinetic of molecules as a function of temperature from the equipartition theorem. This means that more is the velocity or mass of the body , more the is the temperature. My Q is why does ...
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### Solidworks flow simulation temperature drop

Using Soldiworks flow simulation, I want to calculate the temperature drop of water (40 degrees) which flows in 10 m steel pipe. How should I manage Wizards setting and goal?
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### PV Diagram Pressure temperature volume increasing what is net effect on output?

I am not properly understanding this question. please help! Most of the process on PV diagram have this kind of curvature But in the question above, its bit weird. My thoughts: Pressure, temperature ...
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### I want to dissipate 3 kW of heat with an air conditioner. How big of an air conditioner do I need?

So the title says it all. I have a room (4 m x 4 m x 2.5 m) which is closed.(Actually there is a window and I could add a 50 cm panel fan if needed as an exhaust if that will help.) I have some ...
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### Hack a kitchen freezer for lower temperature

Common home freezers usually have the lowest temperatures of about -24 degrees Celsius. Freezers that go lower exist but these are much more expensive (times much). I wonder whether a common kitchen ...
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### How can I trust a K-type thermocouple purchased from a no-name company?

I am doing some temperature measurements for reliability testing, over an expected range of 16C to 45C. I have an NIST traceable thermocouple thermometer (S220-T8), however it does not come with ...
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### Lowest temperature at which a spring powered mechanical wrist or pocket watch will stop operating

In the Wired article 9 Russian Adventurers Mysteriously Froze to Death. A New Theory Explains Why, it is stated that: Without body heat to keep it warm, in such cold weather—estimated to be –13 ...
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### Kiln design, heating element holders

I intend to build a kiln in my free time over the next few months and am trying to avoid my past mistakes (heated too quickly, the kiln started cracking, the kanthal element melted and it was just ...
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### At which temperature and humidity should outside air be drawn inside?

I have a greenhouse that get’s mold in the winter because it’s to humid. I have now installed a heater and a ventilation system drawing outside air into the greenhouse. I wish to start the vent based ...
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### Glue a sample at -40 Degrees

I would need to stick two opposite edges of a sample on two small metallic plates (as it were a bridge). The sample is Silicon and on top an high temperure superconductor which is Temperature ...
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### Networked Control

Considering the air conditioning system for three rooms B, A, and C. Room A is in the center while rooms B and C are on the left and right sides respectively. What is the coupling value (N) I should ...
1 vote
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### Why does use with air or water reduce the maximum temperature of certain high temperature / pressure hoses?

This example is a Parker Hannifin model 426/436 "SAE 100 R1 AT / SAE 100 R16 High Temperature Hose". Here are the temperature specifications: (Full data sheet) Although there is an asterisk ...
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### How to calculate Average temperature from area under the curve?

Let us say I have a graph of temperature against time for a material as shown here. I want to calculate the average temperature. Will it be simple mean of the curve or rms of the curve? Edit: The ...
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### How to calibrate an oven thermometer?

Is there a DIY method for calibrating thermometers in the 200 to 250 degree Celsius range? In a moment of boredom I decided to put all five of my wife's oven thermometers side-by-side in the oven and ...
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### How you calculate the temperature scaling factor?

Used to obtain the corresponding pressure at ambient temperature. Example when testing Proof or burst pressure to a given value at 300°F, but you will test with corresponding pressure (higher) to ...
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### How to increase temperature in a wooden box up to 350 degrees F?

How can I significantly increase the temperature in a relatively medium sized wooden box effectively to 300∘ 𝐹? The box is 3.5 feet in height, 2.2 feet in width, and 9 inches in length. Also I put ...
1 vote
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### What's the thermal bounds of a typical computer case fan?

I'm thinking of repurposing computer fans (case fans and/or CPU/GPU fans) for a hobby steam turbine project. So the idea would be to use the fan rotors in the turbine to drive the shaft (discarding ...
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### Need help with reverse engineering a sensor

I have a pressure/temperature sensor for a vehicle, which I decided to tear apart to see exactly how the sensor works. This sensor as designed by the manufacturer it is meant to be immersed in oil to ...
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### Heat transfer for a copper rod

For a copper rod heated by a heat gun, why might the temperature of the rod continue to increase for a short time after the heat gun has been removed as the heat source? With reference to transient ...
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### I hope this is the correct forum for temperature related question

I have about (this is experimental) 0.75 to 1 liter of water. Ive found I can use 400W of power through peltiers to reduce water flowing through at 1L/minute from 32C to 20C in about 1 to 1.5 minutes ...
1 vote