Questions tagged [steel]

For questions related to the alloy steel: Its production, material properties and applications. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight for plain iron-carbon alloys.

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18
votes
7answers
3k views

Is it structurally sound to cut an I beam to a T on one end?

I'd like to confirm whether the replaced beam in the attached picture is structurally sound given the end was cut to a T instead of an I. I had a qualified structural engineer approve the work but I'm ...
17
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2answers
30k views

How does width and thickness affect the stiffness of steel plate?

I have a 2 mm thick steel plate which is 300 mm long and 30 mm wide, supported at either end. It supports a weight-bearing wheel that can roll along the plate. It currently supports the maximum weight ...
17
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1answer
730 views

Can we change steel properties by application of magnetic field while quenching?

Austenite is non magnetic while $\alpha$-ferrite and pearlite are magnetic. (Magnetic properties of pearlite vary as a function of carbon content) If a strong magnetic field is applied in a ...
15
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1answer
1k views

Why are hyperboloid towers not popular anymore?

Hyperboloid towers were very popular in the end of 19th and the first half of 20th centuries - water towers, powerline anchor towers, sometimes tall radio towers were built using this design. The ...
14
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7answers
22k views

Is stainless steel plating possible?

Is there a method for plating steel with stainless steel? If so, is it chemical, electrical, or electrochemical? I did a quick search on the internet but was unable to find a service. I'm ...
13
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3answers
1k views

Do I need to worry about galvanic corrosion when inserting a steel bar through aluminium?

My design uses a round steel bar inserted through a hole in an aluminium component with a tight fit (no movement). The operating environment is dry, 20-40°C. Do I need to worry about galvanic ...
12
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4answers
4k views

How thick is it reasonable for the walls of a steel gas pipeline to be?

The TurkStream project site claims the gas pipeline will use pipes made from 39 millimeters of high-quality carbon manganese steel with additional plastic coatings on both sides. Yes, they claim 39 ...
12
votes
1answer
6k views

At what point does an I-beam becomes a H-beam?

According to BS5950, a beam section can be classified as plastic, semi-compact, compact or slender. For the same section area, a H-beam can take axial compression (without buckling) better than an I-...
12
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1answer
406 views

Is steel relaxation plastic?

Hooke's Law defines a linear-elastic relationship between stress and strain. $$ \sigma = E\epsilon $$ Steel behaves very much like a linear-elastic material, following Hooke's Law closely. It does, ...
11
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3answers
4k views

Why would a bearing plate that further concentrates load onto small surface be used?

Here's a photo of a bearing plate where a bridge reinforced concrete beam meets the earthfill The bridge span is about 20 meters long and consists of two reinforced concrete beams each resting on two ...
11
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7answers
15k views

Why do we use multiple reinforcing bars instead of one bar with a big diameter in reinforced concrete?

Why do we use multiple reinforcing bars instead of one with a big diameter in reinforced concrete? Does increasing the number of reinforcing bars means that the reinforced concrete will have a higher ...
11
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3answers
2k views

At what temperature do I risk altering the structure of steel?

If I have structural or tool steel that has been treated to some standard (ASTM, SAE, ISO -- e.g., for hardness) but I don't know the details of the treatment, is there a "safe" temperature below ...
11
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2answers
5k views

What does the steel grade “11SMn30” mean?

I am starting to use steel in some of my designs, and while trying to learn more about this material and its properties I have realized that there is so much more to it than I thought. How does the ...
11
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3answers
2k views

What kind of protection should I give structural steel in a natatorium (swiming pool) environment?

What would be the best type of steel to specify? Would a heavy galvanization suffice? Are there specialty paints/coatings available for this particular application? If so, how long do they last?
10
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2answers
419 views

Are threads machined from high tensile steel more susceptible to damage?

I have an ASTM A311-04 1.25" diameter round 1050 steel bar that exhibits a tensile strength reading of 155,227 PSI. Normally, we receive material in the 13-133,000 PSI range. The bar is machined to a ...
10
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1answer
477 views

Does weathering steel corrode the same as carbon steel when it doesn't develop a protective patina?

Weathering steel is supposed to form a protective patina when exposed to wetting and drying cycles. This protective patina prevents more corrosion from occurring. This is what differentiates it from ...
9
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4answers
2k views

How can the alloying materials of recycled steels be separated?

As I know, a very considerable part of the currently processed steels (around half of it) is coming from recycling. But during the steels coming into the recycling process are coming normally from ...
9
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6answers
16k views

Steel selection for building a trailer

I'm thinking about building another trailer. I've built lots of smaller trailers in the past, but this time I'd like to build myself a small tandem axle gooseneck rated for 7,500 lbs. I am a ...
8
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4answers
3k views

Do “non-iron steels” exist?

There are numerous steel alloys, containing mostly iron, carbon, and some other metals. Generally speaking, we can think of them as if they were some type of steel. My question is: do "non-ferrous ...
8
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8answers
3k views

Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?

I have a steel coil spring that is used by compression. It is too strong, and I would like to reduce its strength by some fraction, ideally keeping its length. Reducing it to roughly half would be ...
8
votes
4answers
5k views

What bolts should I specify with Weathering Steel?

When using weathering steel (COR-TEN) on a project, what sort of bolts should I be using? I have yet to see fixings made of weather steel; presumably because the way it uses a sacrificial layer to ...
8
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2answers
4k views

Unbraced Length for Lateral Torsional Buckling vs. Yield Strength

The AISC 360-10 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings gives provisions for calculating the maximum unbraced length of a compression flange that separates yielding moment from lateral torsional ...
8
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2answers
12k views

Force required to crop/cut a mild steel bar

I have cropping/cutting wedges with a thickness of 4 mm cutting either side of a round mild steel bar (17.5 mm). Imagine two wedges being driven together with a round mild steel bar in the middle (...
8
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1answer
2k views

Why build a cell lattice tower with square cross-section instead of triangular cross-section?

First, a neat image from Wikipedia Here the cell tower has three vertical (or maybe slightly inclined to the inside) thicker pipes which are located at angles of a triangle and those three thicker ...
8
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2answers
168 views

Can high alloy tool steels be quenched in brine?

It is will known that most of tool steels are quenched in oil to prevent cracking and distortion which appears when quenching in water due to non-uniform cooling caused by formation of insulating ...
7
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7answers
1k views

Why do manufacturers still make aluminum kitchen utensils?

I noticed many kitchen utensils or stand mixer attachments are made with injected aluminum. Aluminum (~\$20/kg) is usually more expensive than stainless steel (~\$10/kg) and is not compatible with ...
7
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3answers
6k views

How does the strength of a square tube depend on the side size?

There are two square tubes of the same length, material and wall thickness, one being 40x40mm, the other 20x20mm. How does their strength against bending compare? On the one hand, the cross-sectional ...
7
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2answers
426 views

Will stainless steel with a #3 finish corrode faster than a #4 finish?

I understand the difference between a #3 finish on a piece of stainless steel compared to a #4 finish being that the surface roughness is different. Specifically, a #4 finish is classified as having ...
7
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1answer
1k views

Do solid rivets fully fill the holes when installed properly?

Suppose I have two parts with holes aligned and I have to install a solid rivet into the "combined" hole. Clearly the rivet diameter must be slightly smaller than the hole diameter, otherwise it ...
7
votes
1answer
146 views

Special Considerations for Steel Plate Marketed for Laser Cutting

A contractor working for me on a steel construction project is using a steel product they refer to as 'laser plate' which is marketed as specifically as having good performance on laser cutters. This ...
7
votes
2answers
164 views

How to optimise feed-forward control of a process based on a prediction using the prediction confidence?

I'm looking for a control method for a production process with the following characteristics: 1 control variable many process parameters (+-50) 1 resulting variable continuous measurement of ...
6
votes
4answers
8k views

How do you calculate Mcr (critical buckling moment)

When designing a steel beam, the resistance to buckling is related to Mcr; the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. However the Eurocodes give no advice about how to calculate this ...
6
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2answers
5k views

How to strengthen an I beam

To save on material, I am requested to design a continuously supported beam with a maximum bending capacity that is half of its maximum bending moment and to strengthen the beam at certain intervals ...
6
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2answers
5k views

How to calculate tensile strength of braided steel wire?

I am working on project involving designing a recoil spring coil of diameter 10.2 mm and wire diameter 1.25 mm. I tried using a solid core wire but it failed due inadequate tensile strength. ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

Schaeffler, De Long, and WRC welding diagrams - which steels can be used?

I am working on a simple program that would help welder to count how much ferrite, austenite etc. there is in weld. I am focusing on stainless steel. I have decided to use 3 graphs: Schaeffler, De ...
6
votes
1answer
6k views

Densities of different phases of steel (austenite, bainite)

Steel seems to be a very complex material, not least because of the different phases and microstructures. At the moment, I'm especially interested in the bainite formation that happens when austenitic ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Tube Steel - ASTM A1085 vs. A500

Recently, tube steel manufacturers in the US have begun using the new ASTM A1085 specification for forming tube steel (a.k.a. hollow structural section or HSS) shapes, as opposed to the existing A500 ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the process for qualifying a weld between structural steel and stainless steel?

In the US, typical structural steel welding is covered by either AWS D1.1 or AWS D1.5 (bridges). Both of these codes cover a wide range of carbon steels. AWS has a separate code for welding stainless ...
6
votes
1answer
224 views

Hanging a steel mesh without significant deformation

I have an welded steel mesh, like in the following image. . Material: steel Diameter of the wires: 4mm Mesh: 15x15cm I found the following information about the welds: the minimal relative ...
6
votes
2answers
83 views

Should P-Δ effect be considered for struts of a braced excavation?

Building codes such as BS5950 provide clear guidelines on how to consider P-Δ effect due to sway of a vertically loaded portal frame or single storey building, causing additional moment in the columns....
6
votes
2answers
658 views

How to interpret this BS 5950:2000 clause for splices in compression members?

A bolted end plate splice in a strut is designed to transmit compression by direct bearing of connecting cross-sections. If, after accounting for the bending moment due to strut action and additional ...
5
votes
1answer
9k views

Steel vs Bamboo strength types/ weight and in various directions & orientations? Specific, Tensile, Compressive, Shear, Lateral etc?

Why bamboo is the ‘green steel’ of 21st-century Asian architecture Bamboo fibre is stronger and cheaper than steel, says Dirk Hebel Carbon Fiber Vs Steel Vs Aluminum Vs Bamboo Pros and Cons Is bamboo ...
5
votes
1answer
5k views

Is there a standard percentage to increase structural steel weight to account for bolts?

Weight of Structural Steel When calculating the weight of a steel structure, I usually calculate the weight of all of the various members and plates first. I then add an additional percentage to ...
5
votes
2answers
628 views

How is steel tempering addressed when installing pre-heat rivets?

AFAIK when you heat up a piece of steel to high temperature and let it cool down slowly (as opposed to shock cooling by say submerging it into water) steel gets softer - that's called tempering. Steel ...
5
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1answer
755 views

First principle derivation for torsional constant

For torsional constant, analytical formulas are available for some standard steel sections as shown in this wiki page. But what about arbitrary shapes? How can I obtain the formulas for torsional ...
5
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1answer
157 views

Why is this box girder made of lattice on one side only?

Here's a zoomed piece of this image from Wikipedia That's a close-up of a tower holding a railroad bridge. A and B are two of the four columns in the tower's corners. I assume that they are placed ...
5
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1answer
1k views

How many units of HB are used for steel bridges?

Bridges in the UK can be assessed (to standard BA34/90) using an HB vehicle (to standard BD37/01). The HB vehicle is 16 wheel loads, each of 2.5kN times "units". For concrete bridges the number of ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Calculating shaft diameter

I'm designing a circular shaft that's going to carry a spread radial load of about 200kg and also transmit a 160Nm torque. I'm not very familiar with materials but what I'm guessing I'll be able to ...
5
votes
2answers
147 views

Should I discard part of the data (steel traction test)

(please excuse my bad English. I don't speak English) I have to deal with an old hydraulic machine, recovered from a deposit. I have no knowledge on mechanical engineering. Only civil engineering. ...
5
votes
1answer
143 views

Optimal size and shape for a steel target?

Problem I'm building a steel target for long-range rifle shooting. For those unfamiliar, the purpose of the steel is to produce a loud "PING" when the bullet strikes the target. It's very fun. Since ...