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Questions tagged [steel]

For questions related to the alloy steel: Its production, material properties and applications. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight for plain iron-carbon alloys.

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How does width and thickness affect the stiffness of steel plate?

I have a 2 mm thick steel plate which is 300 mm long and 30 mm wide, supported at either end. It supports a weight-bearing wheel that can roll along the plate. It currently supports the maximum weight ...
16
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1answer
544 views

Can we change steel properties by application of magnetic field while quenching?

Austenite is non magnetic while $\alpha$-ferrite and pearlite are magnetic. (Magnetic properties of pearlite vary as a function of carbon content) If a strong magnetic field is applied in a ...
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7answers
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Is stainless steel plating possible?

Is there a method for plating steel with stainless steel? If so, is it chemical, electrical, or electrochemical? I did a quick search on the internet but was unable to find a service. I'm ...
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1answer
1k views

Why are hyperboloid towers not popular anymore?

Hyperboloid towers were very popular in the end of 19th and the first half of 20th centuries - water towers, powerline anchor towers, sometimes tall radio towers were built using this design. The ...
12
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4answers
3k views

How thick is it reasonable for the walls of a steel gas pipeline to be?

The TurkStream project site claims the gas pipeline will use pipes made from 39 millimeters of high-quality carbon manganese steel with additional plastic coatings on both sides. Yes, they claim 39 ...
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3answers
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Why would a bearing plate that further concentrates load onto small surface be used?

Here's a photo of a bearing plate where a bridge reinforced concrete beam meets the earthfill The bridge span is about 20 meters long and consists of two reinforced concrete beams each resting on two ...
12
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3answers
617 views

Do I need to worry about galvanic corrosion when inserting a steel bar through aluminium?

My design uses a round steel bar inserted through a hole in an aluminium component with a tight fit (no movement). The operating environment is dry, 20-40°C. Do I need to worry about galvanic ...
12
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1answer
4k views

At what point does an I-beam becomes a H-beam?

According to BS5950, a beam section can be classified as plastic, semi-compact, compact or slender. For the same section area, a H-beam can take axial compression (without buckling) better than an I-...
12
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1answer
306 views

Is steel relaxation plastic?

Hooke's Law defines a linear-elastic relationship between stress and strain. $$ \sigma = E\epsilon $$ Steel behaves very much like a linear-elastic material, following Hooke's Law closely. It does, ...
11
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7answers
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Why do we use multiple reinforcing bars instead of one bar with a big diameter in reinforced concrete?

Why do we use multiple reinforcing bars instead of one with a big diameter in reinforced concrete? Does increasing the number of reinforcing bars means that the reinforced concrete will have a higher ...
10
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3answers
364 views

At what temperature do I risk altering the structure of steel?

If I have structural or tool steel that has been treated to some standard (ASTM, SAE, ISO -- e.g., for hardness) but I don't know the details of the treatment, is there a "safe" temperature below ...
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2answers
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What does the steel grade “11SMn30” mean?

I am starting to use steel in some of my designs, and while trying to learn more about this material and its properties I have realized that there is so much more to it than I thought. How does the ...
10
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3answers
869 views

What kind of protection should I give structural steel in a natatorium (swiming pool) environment?

What would be the best type of steel to specify? Would a heavy galvanization suffice? Are there specialty paints/coatings available for this particular application? If so, how long do they last?
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2answers
349 views

Are threads machined from high tensile steel more susceptible to damage?

I have an ASTM A311-04 1.25" diameter round 1050 steel bar that exhibits a tensile strength reading of 155,227 PSI. Normally, we receive material in the 13-133,000 PSI range. The bar is machined to a ...
10
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1answer
277 views

Does weathering steel corrode the same as carbon steel when it doesn't develop a protective patina?

Weathering steel is supposed to form a protective patina when exposed to wetting and drying cycles. This protective patina prevents more corrosion from occurring. This is what differentiates it from ...
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3answers
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How can the alloying materials of recycled steels be separated?

As I know, a very considerable part of the currently processed steels (around half of it) is coming from recycling. But during the steels coming into the recycling process are coming normally from ...
8
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4answers
2k views

Do “non-iron steels” exist?

There are numerous steel alloys, containing mostly iron, carbon, and some other metals. Generally speaking, we can think of them as if they were some type of steel. My question is: do "non-ferrous ...
8
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4answers
9k views

Steel selection for building a trailer

I'm thinking about building another trailer. I've built lots of smaller trailers in the past, but this time I'd like to build myself a small tandem axle gooseneck rated for 7,500 lbs. I am a ...
8
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2answers
3k views

Unbraced Length for Lateral Torsional Buckling vs. Yield Strength

The AISC 360-10 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings gives provisions for calculating the maximum unbraced length of a compression flange that separates yielding moment from lateral torsional ...
8
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2answers
8k views

Force required to crop/cut a mild steel bar

I have cropping/cutting wedges with a thickness of 4 mm cutting either side of a round mild steel bar (17.5 mm). Imagine two wedges being driven together with a round mild steel bar in the middle (...
8
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1answer
1k views

Why build a cell lattice tower with square cross-section instead of triangular cross-section?

First, a neat image from Wikipedia Here the cell tower has three vertical (or maybe slightly inclined to the inside) thicker pipes which are located at angles of a triangle and those three thicker ...
7
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7answers
766 views

Why do manufacturers still make aluminum kitchen utensils?

I noticed many kitchen utensils or stand mixer attachments are made with injected aluminum. Aluminum (~\$20/kg) is usually more expensive than stainless steel (~\$10/kg) and is not compatible with ...
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4answers
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What bolts should I specify with Weathering Steel?

When using weathering steel (COR-TEN) on a project, what sort of bolts should I be using? I have yet to see fixings made of weather steel; presumably because the way it uses a sacrificial layer to ...
7
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2answers
390 views

Will stainless steel with a #3 finish corrode faster than a #4 finish?

I understand the difference between a #3 finish on a piece of stainless steel compared to a #4 finish being that the surface roughness is different. Specifically, a #4 finish is classified as having ...
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1answer
1k views

Do solid rivets fully fill the holes when installed properly?

Suppose I have two parts with holes aligned and I have to install a solid rivet into the "combined" hole. Clearly the rivet diameter must be slightly smaller than the hole diameter, otherwise it ...
7
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1answer
123 views

Special Considerations for Steel Plate Marketed for Laser Cutting

A contractor working for me on a steel construction project is using a steel product they refer to as 'laser plate' which is marketed as specifically as having good performance on laser cutters. This ...
7
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2answers
78 views

Should P-Δ effect be considered for struts of a braced excavation?

Building codes such as BS5950 provide clear guidelines on how to consider P-Δ effect due to sway of a vertically loaded portal frame or single storey building, causing additional moment in the columns....
7
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1answer
121 views

How to optimise feed-forward control of a process based on a prediction using the prediction confidence?

I'm looking for a control method for a production process with the following characteristics: 1 control variable many process parameters (+-50) 1 resulting variable continuous measurement of ...
6
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3answers
856 views

How does the strength of a square tube depend on the side size?

There are two square tubes of the same length, material and wall thickness, one being 40x40mm, the other 20x20mm. How does their strength against bending compare? On the one hand, the cross-sectional ...
6
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2answers
3k views

How to calculate tensile strength of braided steel wire?

I am working on project involving designing a recoil spring coil of diameter 10.2 mm and wire diameter 1.25 mm. I tried using a solid core wire but it failed due inadequate tensile strength. ...
6
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1answer
3k views

Schaeffler, De Long, and WRC welding diagrams - which steels can be used?

I am working on a simple program that would help welder to count how much ferrite, austenite etc. there is in weld. I am focusing on stainless steel. I have decided to use 3 graphs: Schaeffler, De ...
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2answers
2k views

How to strengthen an I beam

To save on material, I am requested to design a continuously supported beam with a maximum bending capacity that is half of its maximum bending moment and to strengthen the beam at certain intervals ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Tube Steel - ASTM A1085 vs. A500

Recently, tube steel manufacturers in the US have begun using the new ASTM A1085 specification for forming tube steel (a.k.a. hollow structural section or HSS) shapes, as opposed to the existing A500 ...
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2answers
524 views

How to interpret this BS 5950:2000 clause for splices in compression members?

A bolted end plate splice in a strut is designed to transmit compression by direct bearing of connecting cross-sections. If, after accounting for the bending moment due to strut action and additional ...
6
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1answer
3k views

Aluminum vs Steel rivets/fasteners in a high vibration environment

What are the relative pros and cons between aluminum and steel fasteners when riveting together sheet aluminum (50XX or 60XX) when high amounts of vibration are anticipated? Assuming that the usual ...
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1answer
7k views

Steel vs Bamboo strength types/ weight and in various directions & orientations? Specific, Tensile, Compressive, Shear, Lateral etc?

Why bamboo is the ‘green steel’ of 21st-century Asian architecture Bamboo fibre is stronger and cheaper than steel, says Dirk Hebel Carbon Fiber Vs Steel Vs Aluminum Vs Bamboo Pros and Cons Is bamboo ...
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3answers
233 views

Steel : is Damascus steel still relevant compared to modern alloys?

Damascus steel is a multilayered hand-forged steel used in the past for arabic and japanese weapons and now for kitchen knives and various connoisseur blades. Usually, two alloys are used ...
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1answer
3k views

Is there a standard percentage to increase structural steel weight to account for bolts?

Weight of Structural Steel When calculating the weight of a steel structure, I usually calculate the weight of all of the various members and plates first. I then add an additional percentage to ...
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2answers
481 views

How is steel tempering addressed when installing pre-heat rivets?

AFAIK when you heat up a piece of steel to high temperature and let it cool down slowly (as opposed to shock cooling by say submerging it into water) steel gets softer - that's called tempering. Steel ...
5
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1answer
4k views

Densities of different phases of steel (austenite, bainite)

Steel seems to be a very complex material, not least because of the different phases and microstructures. At the moment, I'm especially interested in the bainite formation that happens when austenitic ...
5
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2answers
85 views

Should I discard part of the data (steel traction test)

(please excuse my bad English. I don't speak English) I have to deal with an old hydraulic machine, recovered from a deposit. I have no knowledge on mechanical engineering. Only civil engineering. ...
5
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1answer
506 views

First principle derivation for torsional constant

For torsional constant, analytical formulas are available for some standard steel sections as shown in this wiki page. But what about arbitrary shapes? How can I obtain the formulas for torsional ...
5
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1answer
123 views

Why is this box girder made of lattice on one side only?

Here's a zoomed piece of this image from Wikipedia That's a close-up of a tower holding a railroad bridge. A and B are two of the four columns in the tower's corners. I assume that they are placed ...
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4answers
933 views

How does a constant load affect the elongation of a steel cable?

I am sorry if this question has been asked before or if the answer is obvious, but I cannot seem to find the answer. A lot of the structural engineering problems we do involve calculating the ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the process for qualifying a weld between structural steel and stainless steel?

In the US, typical structural steel welding is covered by either AWS D1.1 or AWS D1.5 (bridges). Both of these codes cover a wide range of carbon steels. AWS has a separate code for welding stainless ...
5
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1answer
203 views

Hanging a steel mesh without significant deformation

I have an welded steel mesh, like in the following image. . Material: steel Diameter of the wires: 4mm Mesh: 15x15cm I found the following information about the welds: the minimal relative ...
5
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2answers
734 views

How to calculate principal moment of inertia of an unequal angle?

Is there a formula to calculate the moment of inertia of an unequal angle? I am not talking about x or y direction but the maximum and minimum moment of inertia about its rotated axes (usually ...
4
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3answers
492 views

What do you call the steel property that reduces the likelihood of shattering?

What is the property of not shattering, in for example a brisant explosion, called? And what kind of steel would I want that has this property?
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2answers
974 views

How can double I-section walers be spliced to ensure effective moment transfer?

I notice that quite a number of deep excavation projects adopt double I-section walers to form a box beam since standard rectangular hollow sections don't come with such large sizes. The I-sections ...
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3answers
6k views

How do you calculate Mcr (critical buckling moment)

When designing a steel beam, the resistance to buckling is related to Mcr; the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. However the Eurocodes give no advice about how to calculate this ...