Questions tagged [pipelines]

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35
votes
2answers
17k views

What is the purpose of these diversions in a natural gas line?

The campus where I work has a long covered walkway (~.5 mile) which has several labeled pipes running under the roof (chilled water, fuel oil, air...). All of the pipes run dead straight except for ...
22
votes
3answers
1k views

How to know whether the flow is supersonic in a nozzle?

For a project I had built a convergent divergent nozzle designed for Mach number = 3. In that project, I could know the flow has gone supersonic by seeing the manometer fixed between the throat and ...
12
votes
4answers
4k views

How thick is it reasonable for the walls of a steel gas pipeline to be?

The TurkStream project site claims the gas pipeline will use pipes made from 39 millimeters of high-quality carbon manganese steel with additional plastic coatings on both sides. Yes, they claim 39 ...
10
votes
2answers
534 views

How is gas flow through (extremely long) pipelines monitored and controlled?

(This is closely linked with measuring the Mach number inside a nozzle but it is not regarding the supersonic flow) Friction and heat transfer have effects on the Mach number of the compressible flow ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the maximum length of oil pipelines?

This is inspired by the discussion and controversy surrounding the Keystone Pipeline. The main part of the Keystone Pipeline system is about 3,400 kilometers long, stretching across a large portion ...
8
votes
2answers
7k views

How Can I Determine Multiple Discharges from a Pipe Network? (Knowing the Inlet Conditions)

I have little/no experience with pipe networks and have been searching for a methodology to calculate the discharge from multiple outlets of an oil pipe network with a single inlet. As far as i can ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

How can I calculate the stresses and limits for the physical lowering of in-service pipelines?

Sometimes underground pipelines are exposed due to vertical scour or lateral migration of streams (or other erosion). One option is to lower the (in-service) pipeline to a new depth that provides ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Estimating Darcy Friction Factors for Critical Flow

The Darcy-Weisbach equation is used to calculate the frictional pressure losses in pipes transporting incompressible fluids. This equation uses a dimensionless Darcy friction factor, also known as the ...
8
votes
2answers
234 views

Heating circuit: Galvanized steel with press fitting vs welded steel pipes

What are the downsides for galvanized steel pipes + press fittings vs. welded steel pipes in a heating application? Diameter would be DN25/1". Background: The customer specifies only steel, only ...
7
votes
4answers
4k views

Why do water mains break in the winter?

It may just be my perception, but it seems like water main breaks (at least in Pittsburgh PA) are more common in the winter during the cold weather. It may just that they are more news worthy in the ...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

How are blanking spades entered into gas pipelines?

I often see specifications for refurbishing works on gas pipelines calling for blanking spades, to separate the area worked on from the rest of the gas system. This is in addition to closing valves. ...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Why is the friction factor in laminar flow independent of pipe roughness?

The Darcy friction factor is defined as: $$f_D =\frac{64}{Re}$$ with $Re$ I mean Reynolds number (global). I was wondering why Darcy in laminaire flow is independent of pipe roughness (wall roughness)?...
7
votes
3answers
13k views

Force required to empty a syringe

How would you go about solving the following problem. I believe Bernoulli's equation needs to be employed, but I'm not sure how. Find the magnitude of the force that needs to be applied to a piston ...
6
votes
2answers
200 views

Is there a way to reduce leaks and infrastructure damage when turning water on and off at the scale of city?

Cape Town, South Africa is experiencing an extremely serious drought, with estimates putting April 21, 2018 as the day that the city will be forced to shut off all municipal water supplies and begin ...
5
votes
2answers
301 views

What is the correct pipe size for a 2inch pipe?

I'm was looking into the ASME B16.5Pipe flanges and pipe fittings and it has 2 dimension tables metric and inches. What I found was rather strange for me. I was ...
5
votes
2answers
175 views

Is steel air (argon) tight?

I need to build an air tight system that can hold gas (Argon Gas). I see that most pipes use steel. Is steel tight enough to hold that gas? Argon is very dense, so I think it should have no problem.
5
votes
2answers
90 views

One way plastic rubber pipe

I am working on a project for college, and I am stuck on one idea that I don't really know how to represent it. Basically what I want to do is something like a pipe, that if a put a kind of cylinder ...
4
votes
2answers
68 views

Divide Flow and Maintain Pressure

Im in the process of building an espresso machine from readily available parts. I have a solenoid pump that supplies pressurized hot water to the coffee grounds. I want to be able to tune the pressure ...
4
votes
3answers
86 views

How to make sure a pipe does not take all of the water from a stream?

I am trying to design a pipe which takes water from a river and transports it to a reservoir. However, I do not want my pipe to take all of the water from stream, because that will create all sorts ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Losses through holes drilled in a pipe

I asked a previous question about pipe t-junctions with pipes of varying diameters, and it got me wondering... How are losses handled and calculated in pipes with holes drilled directly into them? ...
4
votes
1answer
13k views

How does a union joint with two male threads work?

How does union joint with two male threaded ends work? Does one male end rotate 360 degrees around it axis? How is the inside of the union constructed? Can I connect two pipes with female threads ...
4
votes
0answers
90 views

Simplifying head loss across a piping network

I am tasked with designing a compressed air piping network,with and would like to determine the pressure loss across the different layers of instruments -now here is the 3D layout of the network. ...
3
votes
2answers
9k views

What material is used to make gas pipes?

What is the most common material gas pipes made of? I read in a unreliable website it's steel, is it true? Also how good is steel at stopping or slowing down the leaking of gas? The gas I am ...
3
votes
4answers
15k views

Water pump at top floor or bottom?

Which position of the water pump in the below diagram provide maximum water output to the overhead tank? Each floor is 12 feet in height. I already have the pump (Centrifugal Regenerative Self ...
3
votes
1answer
431 views

Negative head in Darcy's flow equation

This question appeared in my midterms. A pipe transports water from a storage tank A to storage tank B. Storage tank A is at an elevation of 20 m above B, the pipe length is 6.4 km. The present ...
2
votes
3answers
141 views

How do you determine how many pumps you need in a pipeline?

I am working on a pipeline design scenario and I am trying to determine how many pumps I need. In addition to this diagram, I'm given a flow rate range and an acceptable velocity to also determine the ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Heat Loss through a run of insulated piping

I've been racking my head around calculating the amount of heat loss still water will experience through a run of insulated piping. The water in the tank is maintained at roughly 550°F saturated, and ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

Connect heated copper tube in PVC tube

I have a copper tube that I'm heating (quite a lot) with a torch, I have to connect a PVC pipe in the entrance of the copper and one in the exit (so water can flow through the copper pipe). The only ...
2
votes
2answers
692 views

What is a reference that i can use to find the interpretation of a symbol in a gas line schematic?

I have a schematic for some gas lines in a wafer processing unit. One of the symbols which occurs is a circle with an x in it that has the left and right quarters filled in to form two black ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Device to remove condensate, without creating a hazard (EX) zone

I have gas pipeline with biogas, low pressure - approx 40mbar over atmosphere. I want to remove a small amount of condensate, inside a building, without creating an ex-zone. Small amount: I honestly ...
2
votes
0answers
71 views

Calculate fan power

I was wondering how to calculate the required fan power for the following air pipe network. Other losses besides friction is not calculated for. Known parameters: Fan provided flow, VA = 3000 m3/h ...
2
votes
1answer
130 views

Determining required pressure drop for choked flow conditions to be met

I have pipework system with an inlet pressure, $P_0$, which passes from a pipeline of fixed diameter, $D_0$, through a tee with reducer to a smaller diameter pipe, $D_1$, before returning to another ...
2
votes
1answer
763 views

What are the differences between compressor stations, pump stations, and booster stations?

I am doing some research on impacts related to natural gas compressor stations. In some states, I've received data for compressor stations alongside other facilities in the oil and gas world. These ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Alternative to HDPE Piping for long range sea-water + water transport [closed]

Is there an alternative for the expensive HDPE Piping for long range sea water transport?
1
vote
4answers
76 views

Software options for simulating oil flow in small diameter pipes [closed]

I'm looking for 1D software packages that can simulate flows of oil (lubricant) in pipes of a small diameter (typically between 1mm to 12mm in diameter) and have found around 10+ possible candidates, ...
1
vote
2answers
913 views

Estimating Potential Flow through a pipe, from tanks to outlet

I am working on a project for an amazing hot springs project in CA. As part of this project, the county is requiring that we provide our own fire suppression water. We have 3 tanks of 40,000gal each. ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

What is the pressure to secure certain temperature?

How to calculate the pressure needed for a pump to ensure a specific temperature in a pipe? For example, there is a pipe 100m long. A booster pump is needed to pump water with supply temperature 70 ...
1
vote
2answers
101 views

Distribute 6 inputs to 9 outputs with pipes

I have the task to connect 6 input sources of fluid with 9 output (sinks) sources. Each input should be connected to each output. Each input should be able to distribute the fluid to only 1 output at ...
1
vote
1answer
244 views

Simple way to duct a PVC pipe through a stainless steel sheet cover

I need to duct a PVC pipe (DN80) through a stainless steel sheet metal covering. The hole thing needs to be tight against stormwater. There's tons of products to duct pipes through thick walls, but I'...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Intuition behind pressure losses in pipes

From standard pipe-loss equations we know that features in piping systems, such as wall surface roughness, or valves along the pipe system, cause major and minor pressure losses respectively. However, ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Why is the head loss in submerged pipe is 0

Looking at this question : Point C head loss is 0 according to the author Bottom right Can’t understand why , any good explanation for this claim ? Look at page 33 at the top
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Linear pneumatic actuator opening time - pressurise connection pipe

I would like to estimate the time needed to open a linear single-acting pneumatic actuator. The actuator's piston is loaded with a spring pushing downwards and the operating fluid (air or nitrogen) ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Volumetric flow in a pipe from velocity

I think I'm missing something important here. For a fluid with a velocity $u$ in a pipe with cross section area $S$, the volumetric flow rate is equal to: $$Q_v = uS$$ If we now consider vectors, ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Do nylon and rubber bushes usually come in sizes between steel pipe sizes?

I'm in Cambodia where I don't speak the lingo and I'm hoping to do a little DIY project. If I were to buy two different off the shelf steel tubes am I right in thinking that the most common nylon and ...
1
vote
2answers
232 views

Oil refinery pipeline direct to gas stations

I know major oil pipelines do exists either underground or under the seabed. However, these usually move crude/unrefined oil from refinery to refinery. Yet we don't have refined petroleum or gas ...
1
vote
1answer
504 views

Pipe wall thickness and production tolerances

I made a calculation for a pipe that needs to handle 1 MPa pressure. I based my calculation on ASME VIII div1 My calculation says that my pipe needs to be 3&...
1
vote
2answers
3k views

How can I calculate the power to drive a water pump based on discharge from two hoses?

I am trying to solve the following problem: A pump feeds two hoses, each of which is 45 m long and is fitted with a nozzle. Each nozzle has a coefficient of velocity of 0.97 and discharges a 37.5 ...
1
vote
1answer
969 views

Heat Loss per Linear Ft

For an assignment, I was given: Calculate the heat loss per linear ft from $2$ $in$ nominal pipe. ($2.375$ $in$ outside diameter covered with $1$ $in$ of an insulating material having an average ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Calculate mass flow rate of saturated fluid through pipe

Its very basic question. But there is no data all over internet about it. Let's see how we calculate mass flow rate through pipe. We take velocity of fluid and c/s area of pipe. Then we find volume ...
1
vote
2answers
572 views

Find Torque and Force on Pipe with Bend

I did a Civil Engineering course some years ago and from my textbook I had a question on a pipe with a bend. Now I think I have the part of the question on force correct, but I am not sure how the ...