# Questions tagged [metallurgy]

Metallurgy is the science of the production and the processing of different metals and other metallurgic usable elements.

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### What is the theoretical grain size in an ideal phase diagram of a metal?

We suppose thermodynamic equilibrium in a phase diagram, where cooling rates are infinitely long and diffusion in both phases can finish completely. So when we cross the solidus line and we are left ...
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### How do I EXACTLY calculate the k-factor for metal bending?

Introduction I've recently started to work with metals and the process of bending them. There is a lot more math involved than I initially thought. All the break press operators just have a ...
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### What determines the rate of electron discharge machining (EDM) for different materials?

Wire EDM makes no contact with the work piece and disregards hardness. I am using EDM to cut different materials, and I notice a clear distinction between the rate each material gets cut. For example, ...
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### Can diamond grinding wheels be used to grind Tantung (non-ferrous High Cobalt, Chromium, Tungsten alloys?)

I've read that when using diamond wheels to grind ferrous metals, at high temperatures the carbon in the diamond becomes soluble in the iron thus damaging the diamond wheel. Is it okay to use a ...
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### What is the Specific Heat of Molten Bronze?

I have sources giving the specific heat capacity of bronze as 382 to 385 J⋅kg⁻¹⋅K⁻¹, or as 435 J⋅kg⁻¹⋅K⁻¹. I'm assuming the variation is due to different alloys being considered, which are not ...
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### Outline of Various Heat Treatment Processes

I've been trying to sort out some of the heat treatment terms for steel and what they actually mean since there seems to be a lot of interchangeable usage between the two. This is what I have so far. ...
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### Springback in carbon/HSLA steel - cold forming

What are the measurements denoted on top of the YS-t steel lines? Material thickness or bend radius? ...
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### Is inverse hall-petch relation valid crystals larger than nanocrystalline?

The image shown here is of ceramics, where they varied the grain size and measured the strength. For example, let's take Al2O3. There we observed that strength first increased from 3 μm to 95 μm. But ...
1 vote
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### Strange old smithing machine, what is it purpose?

Is anyone familiar with such thing? I suppose that is something used in forge. I don't have better photos, but "steering wheel" was placed on shaft with small gear and this small gear is ...
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1 vote
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### Finding fraction of liquid and solid from isomorphous alloy phase diagram

if alpha of 82% B and liquid of 57% B are in equilibrium in an alloy of 73% B,the fraction of liquid is? I know formula for it, but confused in finding property. Any help will be of great use & ...
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### Is it possible to silver solder a reliable grounding connection to a stainless steel ultrasonic cleaner tank?

My ultrasonic cleaner has a stainless steel tank with a threaded grounding stud for fastening a mains earth wire. I tried to tighten nut that fastens the ground terminal to the stud, but the stud ...
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### Why is a mold required in isostatic pressing after performing Sintering

After an a object is formed through direct laser sintering, as a post-processing procedure the object is sent for hot-isostatic pressing, In hot isostatic pressing the sintered object is placed in a ...
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### When were the japanese yellow/white/blue/silver paper steels introduced?

The steel series called kigami/shirogami (yellow/white paper steel, high purity carbon steels in different grades), aogami (blue paper steel, a tungsten alloyed tool steel series), aogami super (a ...
1 vote
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### Steel Worm/Steel Wheel vs Steel Worm/Bronze Wheel

I have a question regarding worm drives, specifically double-enveloping types: Do steel worm/steel wheel combinations last longer than steel worm/bronze wheel or steel worm/brass wheel combinations? ...
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### Are there is vanadium-free high speed steels?

Vanadium is present in all high speed steel grades. Unfortunately vanadium is not only very expensive but is also a well known cytotoxic metal. Some workers get a severe persistent cough lasting for ...
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### What is the difference between work hardening and strain hardening?

I have come across the definition somewhere,"Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation. This strengthening occurs because of ...
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### Why is the martensite to austenite transition temperature in Shape Memory Alloys so much lower than in steel?

When learning about Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) I was told that the mechanism that allows for strain recovery in SMAs is the martensite to austenite transformation that occurs at low temperature around ...
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### Which one will give better quality to do power compaction between slow press and quick hit?

I would like to do compaction to make small gears. I have seen a lot of videos on Youtube how to do it, mostly by slowly press the metal powder into the mold. But I just have a simple tool, I don't ...
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### How do I perform a lead of helix cut?

In this old blueprint from 1944, it calls for a lead of helix, 1 turn in .2" on red arrow: No other info is provided. This is a top view of the part. Here's ...
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### Casting and the pressure of the metal

Background A gold casting process is explained here: The casting metal is melted in a special casting machine that is programmed to insert the metal under vacuum into the flask at the right time, ...
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### Metal casting simulation and the solidification analysis

Casting process analysis Mold filling affects the quality of a casting. The fluid flow phenomena are closely related to the casting quality and surface finish. The dimensional accuracy of a casting ...
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### Find dimension of surface arc in blueprint given instructions

I'm trying to find the dimension for the surface arc as shown here as L: It doesn't provide the dimension directly, instead it says: ...
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### What's the right stress relief treatment for AS161 magnesium alloy?

I have a 50 year old forged magnesium alloy wheel apparently marked AS161, which I have been led to believe is AS1.61 - not dissimilar to this picture here. So I assume 1.6% aluminium and 1% silicone ...
37 views

### Is strip casting the same thing as continuous casting?

Web searches are surprisingly ambivalent on this question. In steel production, do strip casting and continuous casting refer to the same process?
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### Spring making machines

There's lots of videos of high-speed spring making machines floating around e.g. YouTube, typically taking wire stock of up to a millimeter or so in diameter and producing items which are clearly ...
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### Determine the temperature required for expanding or bending?

Is there any possible way to calculate the temperature required for a metal to expand or bend with dimensions? For example, take Mild steel with a length of 100mm, width of 150mm, and thickness of 2....
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### how to create a Ti V simulation cell with virtual cell approximation for density functional theory calculations

I would like to understand the method of creating simulation cells using the virtual cell approximation for different compositions of TiV using vasp
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### What grade of steel best suits this application?

Take a long, thin, straight wire with a circular cross section. Say, .5mm in diameter and 200mm in length. Hold the wire horizontally at one end (cantilever). What grade of steel would result in the ...
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### How to synthesize alloys or new materials on a small scale?

At the lab scale, alloys or intermetallic compounds are synthesized in an arc melting furnace or by induction melting. The quantity produced is about 5 to 10 grams at minimum. My question is, what if ...
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I debated on whether to put this question in the History or Engineering Stack Exchange. Ultimately, I decided on the Engineering Stack because I believe the people on this site will understand the ...
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### How do I measure groove separation?

In this drawing it says that each groove is separated by 5deg. Each groove has a depth of .015", the radius of the contour is 0.47" How do I measure the separation of each groove? My sketch ...
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### What does LM25KD mean?

I did some reasearch. It looks like LM25 refers to a specific aluminum alloy. I think the KD refers to something about how it is finished. The context is this sentence describing the wheels of one of ...
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### What Formula can be used to plot a relation between stress and strain?

Suppose a question starts by pointing that a cylindrical sample of a certain metal (in my case it is brass alloy) was put under a load. This piece has an initial diameter and length of 1.263cm and 5cm ...
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### Corrosion of Ice Auger Blades

I am wondering about corrosion of the steel blades on my ice fishing auger. The auger is used on fresh water lakes (ie no salt involved). I have traditionally brought the auger inside to melt the ice ...
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### Grain size and fatigue performance correlation for AMS 5662 Inconel 718

I am trying to do a literature review on the correlation between average grain size and fatigue performance of AMS 5662 (solution annealed condition) Inconel 718. The Special Materials Corporation ...
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### Metallurgy: Purifying Cobalt-Nickel-Copper alloys to Cobalt, Nickel, Copper

I am working on lithium battery recycling modelling. Long story short after certain processes I get as output alloys with different compositions of Cobalt, Nickel and Copper. An example of an alloy is ...
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### Iridium carbides in high carbon stainless steel

Has there ever been any high carbon stainless steel made with iridium as one of the alloy components? Is there any research in this direction? There is a paper from 2016 comparing various iridium ...
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### For a given a molten metal (say copper), how do you determine the best material for a 3D printer flatbed? What about circuit board?

Suppose we had a 3D printer that can spew molten metal out of a 0.1mm hot nozzle and that we can control the heat at the last 5mm of the Tungsten hot nozzle's tip. I'm wondering then how would you get ...
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### Heat treatment processes in Nickel-Based Superalloys?

What is the difference in heat treatment process between Wrought Ni-Based superalloys &cast Ni-Based superalloys
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### Why is carbon boil even necessary?

Particularly in an Electric Arc Furnace I have seen carbon boil occuring . I understand the reaction is very vital but what is it's utility? A detailed answer to this is most welcome. The internet ...
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### A question on how heat treatment is done in bogies

During heat treatment of metals I find that Normalizing is done in railway bogies and tempering is done following normalizing only for the CP top and bottom. Following the tempering process quenching ...
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### Fluid energy mills with powdered reactive metals

Can fluid energy mills manufacture spherical powdered metal of size ~5 micrometers in cases where the metal is quite reactive, like with lithium and aluminum, if the fluid used is a non reactive gas ...
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### Doubt in triaxial stress state in a notched specimen

In the book titled "Mechanical Metallurgy" written by G.E.Dieter I am having problems to understand why a notch in a material would mean a triaxial state of stress.I do well understand that ...
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### How to increase blast furnace top gas temperature?

Why does blast furnace (in Iron & Steel works) top gas temperature stays low and what are the fixes for that to increase without using a burner? The top gas temperature goes below 80 degrees (...
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### Electric Current Based Shape-Memory Alloy

Would it be possible to create a piece of metal, made out of an alloy or combination of alloys, that undergoes a shape-memory-esque change in structure in reaction to an electric current? Could it ...
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### How to produce aluminium powder by E. J. Hall method

I have watched videos on YouTube producing Aluminum powder by mechanical methods. Like this one. It uses Aluminum foil and coffee grinder: There are similar videos which use the same basic method but ...
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### Phase prediction by cct diagram

Can someone please help in finding out the phase proportion of each phase w.r.t time , cooling rate and temperature by using (mathematical model to predict phases from given cct diagram) Leblond ...
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### Kfactor for laminated steel plates rolling

I need to make a flat pattern for a cylinder made from a steel plate 44mm thick laminated with explosion cladding stainless steel plate of 8mm total plate thickness is 52mm. How I usually work is ...