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Questions tagged [metallurgy]

Metallurgy is the science of the production and the processing of different metals and other metallurgic usable elements.

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Outline of Various Heat Treatment Processes

I've been trying to sort out some of the heat treatment terms for steel and what they actually mean since there seems to be a lot of interchangeable usage between the two. This is what I have so far. ...
0 votes
1 answer
45 views

Is strip casting the same thing as continuous casting?

Web searches are surprisingly ambivalent on this question. In steel production, do strip casting and continuous casting refer to the same process?
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1 answer
113 views

Iridium carbides in high carbon stainless steel

Has there ever been any high carbon stainless steel made with iridium as one of the alloy components? Is there any research in this direction? There is a paper from 2016 comparing various iridium ...
0 votes
1 answer
47 views

How do I perform a lead of helix cut?

In this old blueprint from 1944, it calls for a lead of helix, 1 turn in .2" on red arrow: No other info is provided. This is a top view of the part. Here's ...
0 votes
1 answer
81 views

Determine the temperature required for expanding or bending?

Is there any possible way to calculate the temperature required for a metal to expand or bend with dimensions? For example, take Mild steel with a length of 100mm, width of 150mm, and thickness of 2....
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1 answer
62 views

Casting and the pressure of the metal

Background A gold casting process is explained here: The casting metal is melted in a special casting machine that is programmed to insert the metal under vacuum into the flask at the right time, ...
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2 answers
56 views

Is this what 6061 aluminum looks like?

The part in the middle which retains the heating element is what I know as aluminum. A pale color and a really soft feel. The plate at the bottom is something new to me. It feels more solid, it has a ...
1 vote
1 answer
116 views

Are there is vanadium-free high speed steels?

Vanadium is present in all high speed steel grades. Unfortunately vanadium is not only very expensive but is also a well known cytotoxic metal. Some workers get a severe persistent cough lasting for ...
10 votes
4 answers
11k views

At what temperature do I risk altering the structure of steel?

If I have structural or tool steel that has been treated to some standard (ASTM, SAE, ISO -- e.g., for hardness) but I don't know the details of the treatment, is there a "safe" temperature below ...
0 votes
2 answers
284 views

What is the rated tensile strength of 2000 kcmil stranded copper conductor?

All the documentations I could find goes upto only 1000 kcmil. Please direct to a reference for larger cables. Is there a method to extrapolate from smaller cable sizes?
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21 views

If I have welding procedure (QW-403) for carbon steel material S275JR, can I use it to weld carbon steel material for Q355B? Need for separate WPS?

I have a project where the material of carbon steel plates to be used is S275JR and S355JR. Our Chinese supplier could not manage to get S275JR or S355JR but rather prefers to use Q355B which is ...
0 votes
2 answers
83 views

Metallurgy: Purifying Cobalt-Nickel-Copper alloys to Cobalt, Nickel, Copper

I am working on lithium battery recycling modelling. Long story short after certain processes I get as output alloys with different compositions of Cobalt, Nickel and Copper. An example of an alloy is ...
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

What is the difference between work hardening and strain hardening?

I have come across the definition somewhere,"Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation. This strengthening occurs because of ...
2 votes
1 answer
140 views

Can diamond grinding wheels be used to grind Tantung (non-ferrous High Cobalt, Chromium, Tungsten alloys?)

I've read that when using diamond wheels to grind ferrous metals, at high temperatures the carbon in the diamond becomes soluble in the iron thus damaging the diamond wheel. Is it okay to use a ...
0 votes
1 answer
83 views

Kfactor for laminated steel plates rolling

I need to make a flat pattern for a cylinder made from a steel plate 44mm thick laminated with explosion cladding stainless steel plate of 8mm total plate thickness is 52mm. How I usually work is ...
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0 answers
26 views

Should I add a radius for max radius call in a diagram when creating a 3D CAD?

If on a blueprint it says XXXX R. Max. do I need to add a radius when creating a CAD representation, or is the radius always optional, but if present must not ...
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0 answers
28 views

Does electropolishing has any effect on the conductivity of stainless steel?

During the manufacturing of a spring from SS AISI 303 wire, we noticed that after electropolishing, the sample does not remain as conductive as it was before. My hypothesis is that since ...
1 vote
1 answer
308 views

Can electric furnaces be used for steel production from ore?

The transition towards climate neutrality is a big political topic in Germany. One claim that is often made but typically only handwaivingly explained (if at all) is that we need (green) hydrogen. I ...
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33 views

Which one will give better quality to do power compaction between slow press and quick hit?

I would like to do compaction to make small gears. I have seen a lot of videos on Youtube how to do it, mostly by slowly press the metal powder into the mold. But I just have a simple tool, I don't ...
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0 answers
51 views

Metal casting simulation and the solidification analysis

Casting process analysis Mold filling affects the quality of a casting. The fluid flow phenomena are closely related to the casting quality and surface finish. The dimensional accuracy of a casting ...
0 votes
1 answer
144 views

Effect of multiple alloying elements on steel's eutectoid properties

Mechanical engineering student here (the professor is not being helpful). When a single alloying element is added to a normal iron-carbon steel, the resulting changes in eutectoid temperature and ...
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49 views

Find dimension of surface arc in blueprint given instructions

I'm trying to find the dimension for the surface arc as shown here as L: It doesn't provide the dimension directly, instead it says: ...
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1 answer
105 views

What does this F symbol means in blueprints?

What does this F (similar to mathematical function symbol) means in blueprints? Year of blueprint 40s.
2 votes
1 answer
63 views

Find height of cone point in blueprint

In this blueprint I was not able to find where the height of the point of the cone angle should be. Here's the original blueprints: http://library.centerofthewest.org/digital/collection/WRAC/id/398/...
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15 views

What's the right stress relief treatment for AS161 magnesium alloy?

I have a 50 year old forged magnesium alloy wheel apparently marked AS161, which I have been led to believe is AS1.61 - not dissimilar to this picture here. So I assume 1.6% aluminium and 1% silicone ...
1 vote
3 answers
684 views

What is the strongest and lightest material?

I have heard titanium is the strongest and the lightest material. It is used for my glasses' frame. Is it true that it is the strongest and the lightest as well? Strongest, the biggest forces can it ...
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0 answers
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Spring making machines

There's lots of videos of high-speed spring making machines floating around e.g. YouTube, typically taking wire stock of up to a millimeter or so in diameter and producing items which are clearly ...
2 votes
2 answers
8k views

What's the Difference Between LT and T Directions?

What is the difference between LT and T directions in MMPDS (formerly MIL-Handbook 5)? I hand understood that forming metal orients its grains, destroying the isotropic nature of 'pure metal' and ...
2 votes
0 answers
28 views

What determines the rate of electron discharge machining (EDM) for different materials?

Wire EDM makes no contact with the work piece and disregards hardness. I am using EDM to cut different materials, and I notice a clear distinction between the rate each material gets cut. For example, ...
4 votes
1 answer
914 views

What actually cause quench cracking, non-uniform cooling or rapid cooling?

It’s well known that quenching most alloyed steels starting from AISI 4140 to high speed steels in water, brine , or sometimes oil will cause cracking and distortions. In industry, oil quenching is ...
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25 views

What grade of steel best suits this application?

Take a long, thin, straight wire with a circular cross section. Say, .5mm in diameter and 200mm in length. Hold the wire horizontally at one end (cantilever). What grade of steel would result in the ...
3 votes
1 answer
231 views

How the choice of etchant can affect the severity of hydrogen embrittlement during pickling and passivation?

Following this question, I am trying to understand how/if the choice of acid we might use during the pickling and passivation of certain metals, can influence the severity of hydrogen embrittlement. ...
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33 views

Does anybody know anything about this patented, late-19th-century process for producing white lead?

I debated on whether to put this question in the History or Engineering Stack Exchange. Ultimately, I decided on the Engineering Stack because I believe the people on this site will understand the ...
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0 answers
49 views

How do I measure groove separation?

In this drawing it says that each groove is separated by 5deg. Each groove has a depth of .015", the radius of the contour is 0.47" How do I measure the separation of each groove? My sketch ...
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0 answers
16 views

What does LM25KD mean?

I did some reasearch. It looks like LM25 refers to a specific aluminum alloy. I think the KD refers to something about how it is finished. The context is this sentence describing the wheels of one of ...
7 votes
5 answers
21k views

Copper is more conductive, so why use lead battery terminals?

Copper is around 14 times more conductive than lead according to this source. If this is the case why are car battery terminals and connectors built using Lead? I saw both types of replacement ...
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43 views

What Formula can be used to plot a relation between stress and strain?

Suppose a question starts by pointing that a cylindrical sample of a certain metal (in my case it is brass alloy) was put under a load. This piece has an initial diameter and length of 1.263cm and 5cm ...
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1 answer
59 views

What is the metallic alloy used in camera cases?

What is the metallic alloy used in camera cases? They are manufatured by what process?
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why does faster cooling produce smaller grains?

I've learned that in general steel and other metals tend to have smaller grains when cooled quickly and larger grains when cooled slowly and that at higher temperatures, the grain size grows even if ...
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58 views

Corrosion of Ice Auger Blades

I am wondering about corrosion of the steel blades on my ice fishing auger. The auger is used on fresh water lakes (ie no salt involved). I have traditionally brought the auger inside to melt the ice ...
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0 answers
61 views

Grain size and fatigue performance correlation for AMS 5662 Inconel 718

I am trying to do a literature review on the correlation between average grain size and fatigue performance of AMS 5662 (solution annealed condition) Inconel 718. The Special Materials Corporation ...
0 votes
1 answer
13k views

Galvanized Steel (Zinc Plated Steel) vs Stainless Steel

Zinc Plating is known for its ability to prevent most corrosion, and it is done by just dipping a metal in hot pool of zinc and letting it cooldown. Meanwhile, stainless steel, an alloy that is ...
6 votes
3 answers
22k views

Why use a 'dogbone' shape for tensile testing specimens?

Why is that the shape of the tension test specimen a dogbone-like shape? I know that it is so that the deformation is confined to the narrow center region and to reduce the likelihood of fracture to ...
0 votes
1 answer
135 views

What is the difference between an alloy and a metamaterial?

Metamaterials are carefully structured materials — often consisting of periodically arranged building blocks — that exhibit properties and functionalities that differ from and surpass those of their ...
1 vote
2 answers
102 views

Is there any way to improve the strength of simple at-home aluminum/copper/brass castings (sand-casting hammers)

I'm just getting-into melting-down cans to make aluminum-based slingshots, hammers and the like. In my ignorance I didn't realize that copper/brass were also things that I could process which has ...
1 vote
2 answers
390 views

Consumable arc welding Polarity Effect on heat input

why DCEP is generally used in consumable welding process? As per my understanding more heat is generated where the electrons collide(anode), so in consumable welding,we want deposition and also want ...
0 votes
2 answers
89 views

Will hundreds of wood-burning fires damage 1/2" thick steel? [closed]

I have 1/2" and 3/8" thick x 24" diameter steel pipes that are typically used for natural gas transport, but in my case they take the shape of horizontal wood-burning cookers. I am ...
0 votes
1 answer
85 views

Longer lasting soldering tips

I'm a real thrifty guy, so seeing my soldering tip with months of use on them starting to crack & peel, the layer I take to be nickel cladding, disheartens me. Again, this is planned obsolescence ...
2 votes
1 answer
98 views

Why 95% Water is used Instead of 100%

So in this video(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1z829NF9PA) at around 2:35 it says that the alluminium ingots for alluminium foil, after being heated, are cooled down with a mixture of 95% water, 5% ...
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2 answers
67 views

Building up worn steel via plating or other method?

I've asked several people and gotten mixed answers, so I've decided to post the question here. Can steel be electroplated onto steel to build up worn surface areas (I'm talking about less than a ...