Questions tagged [liquid]

For questions about the specific properties of materials in their liquid states, and their engineering applications, such as in hydraulics, heating/cooling systems, and chemical reactions.

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33 votes
8 answers
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Is it possible to "pump" a powder?

Is it possible to "pump" a powder the same way liquids can be pumped? If so, what are the challenges? If not, what are some alternatives?
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10 votes
1 answer
1k views

What liquid crystals are used most frequently in displays?

Is there a specific chemical that is used frequently in the production of liquid crystal displays? During my internet research so far, it seems as if the specific chemical composition of the liquid ...
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  • 345
3 votes
2 answers
272 views

What type of liquid flow control could this device use?

I am trying to figure out what kind of device is being used to stop and start the flow of liquid inside this device. Below is a link to the device. It looks too small to be a solenoid or a pump. How ...
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2 votes
2 answers
43 views

In marker pens, why does the ink travel to the nib?

This question is specifically for felt tip pens and marker pens that contain a felt inner tube. The parts of the pen are: - the body case - the felt nib - the felt inner tube I do not understand is ...
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2 votes
3 answers
825 views

Mirror-like reflective liquid crystal display panel

I can't find any information about this on Google, so I thought I'd ask it here. I am looking for a LCD Screen-like panel which uses a mirror-like liquid crystal so that I can make a pane of glass ...
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  • 247
2 votes
0 answers
55 views

Liquid phase gas flow through valve

I have been trying to figure out how to calculate the required dimensions for liquid phase gas through a solenoid valve. Many companies (Swagelok, Bürkert, Asco) provide "Flow coefficient calculators" ...
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  • 21
2 votes
0 answers
40 views

Finding liquid viscosity

I'd like to calculate the viscosity of a liquid in a container systematically (and feed the results back to a computer). I only have basic knowledge of physics and mechanics. I think that a motor ...
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  • 121
1 vote
3 answers
244 views

Is there a type of check valve that allows gas to flow in both direction but stops liquid from flowing back?

I have a pressure regulator to maintain a specified pressure in a vessel that also contains a liquid. The regulator can pressurize or relieve pressure of the vessel. I want to prevent the liquid from ...
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1 vote
1 answer
917 views

How to design spray nozzle (like in pulverizer) for 3d print?

How do spray nozzles work? How do they convert liquid to aerosol? Is it possible to print tiny spray nozzles from metal powder?
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  • 119
1 vote
1 answer
38 views

Will an electric water pump has slower flow if it must pump through a longer tube?

I am planning a series of ponds, where the first pond (near the source of electricity) has the highest water level, the water flows to the second, lower pond, via a small water fall, and to a third, ...
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  • 163
1 vote
2 answers
6k views

Can PWM be used to control the flow of a solenoid valve?

Most cheap pump can achieve, according to the Amazon page, around 5 PSI and I would need something a way higher that can still be controlled. I have this solenoid valve. Can I use pulse-width ...
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  • 219
1 vote
1 answer
46 views

Is there a male and female valve that is closed until connected together?

I'm trying to make a quick release male and female connector similar to the one shown here. One connector is attached to the bottom of a container filled with liquid. When it is not connected it is ...
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1 vote
1 answer
33 views

Optimized water droplet formation

What is the best way to "shatter" a water drop falling purely under gravity if the objective is to break it into as many droplets and as fine (smallest diameter) as possible? Should the ...
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1 vote
0 answers
29 views

Temperature of water decreasing during boil

I am trying to understand this phenomenon that I have noticed with my system (40L capacity boiler with a NTC thermistor located at the bottom). When boiling 10 Litres, the temperature reading reaches ...
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  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
21 views

Is it possible to use a laser push a 100 micron diameter droplet of water through a fine mesh?

Context I've had the thought of a printing device that uses a thin grid that has holes small enough to allow suspension of a water based ink above a sheet of paper using surface tension. I've ...
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1 vote
0 answers
20 views

Valve advice for chiller test rig

I am in the process of designing a chiller test rig, of which a very simplified diagram would be (the quick coupling might just be replaced by a non-return valve): I am struggling to find the type of ...
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  • 1,806
1 vote
2 answers
294 views

How to calculate change in pressure from LN2 state change (constant volume)

I am trying to calculate the increase in pressure caused by liquid nitrogen at the moment it changes from liquid to vapor within a closed, constant volume at atmospheric pressure. Do I need to include ...
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1 vote
0 answers
14 views

Shear between which two fluids is better for atomisation - liquid & liquid or gas & liquid?

In designing an atomizer which generates a spray of liquid, one can adopt atomisation through shear. Shear in the following cases are to be considered: stagnant Gas- moving Liquid: in this gas case ...
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1 vote
0 answers
31 views

Overcoming gravity with fluid pressure

How would I determine if an upward flow of liquid at 100 bar forces a bed of porous solid upwards or flows through without affecting the same bed of material? Is it related to bulk density and pores?
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1 vote
0 answers
26 views

Determination of delivery pressure from pump in my Parts Washer

We want to know how can we determine the pressure of the liquid at the delivery end of the pump. We have a centrifugal pump and a 2" pipeline at the delivery end. Pump delivery performance as per ...
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0 votes
1 answer
48 views

What is the function of this device in the middle of the man-made lake?

Can anyone identify what the blue and orange floating item with paddles is in this picture of what appears to be a Chinese fish or turtle farm?
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  • 163
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

How to get a wheel pump to deposit water near the top of the wheel?

Suppose I have a wheel, about 6 feet in diameter, with empty soup cans affixed around it, powered by a big windmill. This drawing only has four spokes, but there will be more: ...
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  • 163
0 votes
1 answer
633 views

How can I improve water flow within this diagram?

I'm hoping I'm asking this in the right place. I'm trying to determine how I can improve the water flow within a project I'm working on. The flow starts out at the large water pump on the bottom ...
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  • 103
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

Water dynamics in aluminum pipeline for dummies

This topic is totally alien to me, so I may be asking something very obvious. I am designing a cooling system. In the bulk of aluminum, I drill 3mm holes and then I connect them one to another to ...
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0 votes
3 answers
209 views

Liquid Level Control System Resistance

In the figure attached for reference, it is given that if $R_1$ is the resistance element of valve 1 and τ ∝ $R_1$, but I am not able to understand it intuitively. If $R_1$ is high, output flow ...
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0 votes
1 answer
218 views

How do I measure mercury in a graduated cylinder?

Convention says to measure at the bottom of the meniscus, but I think the cohesion/adhesion balance of mercury results in it "bulging out" Do you measure at the top of the bulge (near the center) or ...
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0 votes
1 answer
44 views

Peristaltic pump - theory vs reality, where is a problem?

I'm building a test system (experiment) for peristaltic pump to check if pump is able to pump according to specification. The pump data: 6,3ul liquid moved per stroke. 5 strokes per revolution. The ...
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0 votes
2 answers
186 views

How does shear/viscous stress change in liquids as applied shear force is changed?

As per Newton's law of viscosity, the dynamic viscosity of a Newtonian fluid is constant (doesn't change with applied shear stress).Consider the Couette flow used to explain viscosity . Whenever we ...
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0 votes
1 answer
471 views

Which materials we can use for storing liquid nitrogen?

What are the materials we can use for the long-term storage of 30~liters of liquid nitrogen with composition and grade, along with the thickness of the sheet and storage capacity? Can we use any ...
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0 votes
0 answers
65 views

Calculating gas volume in a gas-liquid system/pressurized vessel

There is water in a tank and the tank is connected to a piece of piping that has a volume of 2.5L. The headspace above the water is pressurised by using air, to a pressure of 3 bar (a). What happens ...
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  • 13
0 votes
1 answer
72 views

Valves and plumbing size

I'm building a liquid rocket engine and we're using kerosene and oxygen as our propellent. Now my question is what pipe size should we use? My flow rate for kerosene is 0.160 Liters per second and we ...
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0 votes
1 answer
196 views

Energy required to liquify gaseous oxygen?

Does anyone know where I can find some documentation of a real-world liquification process, and the energy costs? I can calculate the heat that must be removed from O2 gas to get to liquid, but how ...
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  • 11
0 votes
0 answers
47 views

Is there a valve design or system that can do this?

I am trying to come up with a way to bleed air from a tube to avoid air (gas) from reaching the other end of the tube. Is there a way to do this automatically? It must be able to work in all ...
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0 votes
1 answer
146 views

Liquid delivery to a pump based on viscosity

I have a tank that is filled with a viscous liquid (~3000 CPs). At the bottom of the tank there is a pipe that leads to a gear pump. There is 22" of pipe straight down from the tank followed by a ...
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  • 1
-1 votes
1 answer
54 views

Determine the length of the tube

I need to determine the size of the tube having the flow rate of the liquid (water) which is 5 ml/min and assuming the diameter of the tube is 4mm. How can i determine the size of the tube that takes ...
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