Questions tagged [instrumentation]

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4answers
128 views

Selection of corrosion resistant material for mechanical testing apparatus

I want to build a 4-point bending apparatus for operating within a corrosive environment, using EXCO type corrosion solution as seen in ASTM Standard G46. Thus, in this highly corrosive environment, I ...
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1answer
104 views

Automated valve for testing module

I work frequently with materials sensitive to oxygen and moisture, within a glove box. However, there are frequently times I want to move these samples from the glove box to a scanning electron ...
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1answer
99 views

Why do gimballed gyroscopes platforms need drive motors in order to maintain it's fixed orientation?

I have a fundamental misunderstanding about the role of gimbals and gyroscopes in determination of angular rotation rates (in inertial measurement units). A set of three gimbals enables an object ...
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1answer
35 views

How to add a Gaussian noise signal with zero-mean in a given data set?

I have a real-time velocity measurement data set in a excel (.xlsx) file. I want to add the Gaussian noise signal with zero mean in this real-time data to create three set of pseudo measurements. ...
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1answer
51 views

Effect of conductivity on time constant

Usually the governing equation for a thermometer is given by, $$\frac{m c_v}{h\;A_s}\dfrac{dT(t)}{dt}+ T(t) = T_\infty$$ Now for a problem the thermal conductivity of the thermometer bulb is also ...
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1answer
82 views

Can I use loadcell for vibrating force measurement?

Is it possible to use a load cell to measure a force that is vibrating? The idea is to measure that force that is getting into the load cell in a sweep of frequencies and vibration is NOT a noise. ...
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2answers
61 views

Response time and time constant of Mercury thermometer

I searched to find differences between response time and time constant of a thermometer. So I found that those two are not same and we have to get 99.3% of the total step change to find response time ...
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2answers
34 views

Question on fluid flow measurement uncertainty

Say you are trying to measure the liquid flow rate (mass or volume) through a pipe and you want to get the best measurement possible, and you have two flow meters. In one scenario, you put one flow ...
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1answer
51 views

Does P&ID have cross-reference same as electrical drawing?

In electrical i usually use cross-references to identify their symbols locations, I am still yet a lot to discover P&ID. So my question is, does P&ID have this such of thing?
4
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1answer
50 views

Is there an industry consensus standard for storing sensor data?

I would like to know what standard(s) may exist for formatting log data from sensors that record information such as: temperature pressure humidity vibration acceleration vector magnetic field vector ...
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3answers
73 views

Liquid Level Control System Resistance

In the figure attached for reference, it is given that if $R_1$ is the resistance element of valve 1 and τ ∝ $R_1$, but I am not able to understand it intuitively. If $R_1$ is high, output flow ...
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2answers
77 views

How is the YAW angle calculated by an IMU sensor?

Say a body rotates by 90 degrees, then the yaw angle will be 90 which can be calculated using the data provided by IMU. Now from that point, the body traverses some distance and is again rotated by 90 ...
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0answers
29 views

P&ID questions on reports, connection, etc

Good day to all of you. I got some questions in my mind regarding on P&ID: In electrical, symbol will have their own default reference name for example "Motor" will use "M" , ...
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1answer
70 views

What does this P&ID symbol represent?

The symbol: Here is a part of the diagram:
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1answer
46 views

Determining stability of a current souce from the datasheet. How to?

Is there any way to calculate the stability of an instrument such as current sources and digital voltmeters from their datasheet? Let me provide one example. My application requires stable current ...
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1answer
23 views

In P&ID, what is the difference in terms of information between pipe and signal line In the diagram?

I got a question. In the P&ID, the pipe will have information such as size, spec, service, insulation size/type and etc. For signal line, is it necessary to have these kind of information? or they ...
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2answers
393 views

Identification a Symbol for P&ID's Standards

i have a question regarding on PID standards ISO 14617. Below is the attached symbol graphic, i seem cannot find anywhere what actually this symbol refer to from standards that i have looked up; PIP, ...
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0answers
26 views

Understanding the RMS noise for a given bandwidth

I would like to ask a technical question regarding the current source Keithley Series 2400 Model 2450. I am looking for a high stability current source capable of feeding some Hall probes with a ...
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1answer
32 views

Orientation of wire in linear position wire sensors

Talking about a wire potentiometer, I was wondering about the way it could be used after installation. as you know, wire sensors have a roll of wire inside them that come out of a hole, and it sounds ...
1
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1answer
29 views

AC voltage b/w DC power supply o/p and Ground

I have various Phoenix Contact Mini DC Power supply units (Pheonix Contact MINI-PS-100-240AC-5DC). It gives the correct DC Voltage across output terminals, as its supposed to. But I also noticed that ...
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2answers
62 views

Accurate method or instrument to measure density of shaving cream foam or whipped cream foam?

I am currently filling a "standard" stainless steel cup of known volume with foam and then I weigh it. Then I calculate density. This method is pretty messy and I have to be careful about how I fill ...
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1answer
94 views

Need help identifying component on hydraulic schematic

I'm relatively new to hydraulics, and I'm trying to understand this schematic. I've got the majority of the system figured out, but I cant for the life of me understand what the symbols at positions ...
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0answers
31 views

Why is there no widely-used standardized unit for indentation hardness?

The last hundred years have seen a great degree of standardization of units, and the expression of units of measurement in standardized, instrument-agnostic, objective terms, often in the SI units. ...
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1answer
135 views

P&ID Symbol Identification Question

Does anyone know what these three symbols are? I am working to identify them but they do not seem to appear in the site: https://www.edrawsoft.com/pid-legend.php Does anyone know a better reference ...
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2answers
72 views

What is the name and purpose of this Instrumentation / Mechanical fitting

The component I am interested in is the blue "head" in the attached image. I call it the sensor head but will like to know if it has a specific industry name
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0answers
43 views

Output matrix for system with accelerometer

Consider a generic second order state space SISO system \begin{equation} \left[ \begin{array}{c}{\dot{\tilde{x}}_{1}} \\ {\dot{x}_{2}}\end{array}\right]=A \left[ \begin{array}{c}{\tilde{x}_{1}} \\ {\...
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1answer
58 views

How to create a Liquid tight cable seal in a fuel storage tank

I am working on a telemetry system where a liquid level sensor (Hydrostatic pressure sensor) is used to monitor the volume of fuel (gasoline / diesel) in an underground storage tank. The sensor has ...
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2answers
39 views

How to measure number of strokes in a small space

I have read about a device called drumometer, which measures the number of strokes of hitting drum stick. I think this is almost the same, but instead, I would like to measure the number of strokes/...
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1answer
37 views

If I replace a flow orifice with a Coriolis flow meter of the same size do I need to worry about pressure drop with the new Coriolis meter?

I have a 3 inch line with a 1.5 inch flow orifice. If I take out the flow orifice and put in a 1.5 inch coriolis meter will the pressure drop be the same or better with the new coriolis meter than ...
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2answers
3k views

What is the difference between TE and TI?

I have done some research about the subject but I can't find the difference between Temperature Element (TE) and Temperature Indicator (TI) Here is an image of the P&ID of the project am ...
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1answer
38 views

Operating a load cell below excitation voltage

I currently have this load cell, which has a 10V excitation voltage. However, there is a very nice/convenient load cell amplifier that works with an excitation voltage of 5 VDC. What are the ...
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2answers
390 views

How do solar balloons work at high altitudes?

I am interested in the challenges that Solar Balloons face when flying. For example, the high altitude could cause drastic changes in: Wind speed Temperature Moisture How does the unique design of ...
4
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1answer
112 views

Real world applications where one would use a force function in PLC programming?

I'm curious about which scenarios one would use a force function when using a PLC programming interface. Examples pertaining to process engineering, manufacturing, or industrial settings would be ...
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1answer
33 views

How can I determine pressure leakage in a pneumatic system?

I am an engineer currently designing a system in which the leakage of a hose is tested. The system consists of the following components: An air data system used to generate a pressure inside the hose....
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1answer
553 views

How to protect a pressure gauge from condensation in a vacuum steam boiler?

Pressure gauges are protected from steam condensation in a regular boiler by using a siphon where steam condenses and prevents steam from going further up to the gauge. However in a vacuum steam ...
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1answer
106 views

Maximum Tensile strength confusion [closed]

Is the maximum tensile strength a property of a material ? If it is so then suppose I am given the maximum tensile strength of two flat spiral springs to be $30MN/m^2$ and I have to find the ...
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0answers
85 views

Not getting accurate readings from my multimeter

EDITED THIS POST FOR THE PEOPLE WHO PROVIDED ME WITH GREAT FEEDBACK I have been building a few simple project circuits, mainly to analyze electronic theory. The problem I'm having right now is that ...
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4answers
756 views

How to measure the pressure inside a bottle rocket?

I'm making a pressurized bottle rocket out of a plastic bottle, vinegar, baking soda and a cork. When the vinegar & baking soda react in the closed bottle, the pressure builds up but i want to ...
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2answers
223 views

Calibration curve of an instrument

In the calibration procedure of an instrument (e.g. a pressure transducer), when we want to determine the calibration curve, is it a good choice to force the passage of the calibration curve through ...
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2answers
881 views

How do gimbals affect gyros?

"By mounting a gyro on a set of gimbal rings, the gyro is able to rotate freely in any direction. Even though the gimbal rings are tiled, twisted, or otherwise moved, the gyro remains in the plane in ...
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2answers
3k views

How to get natural frequencies from accelerometer measurements?

I will be performing some tests and measuring the vibrations of a planetary gearbox. The accelerometer I will be using stays attached to the gearbox and saves the data into a log, which is available ...
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1answer
48 views

How would you measure the electrostatic field of a celestial body from its surface?

If we need to measure the Electrostatic field of a celestial body due to its interaction with space plasmas, What kind of instruments can be used to achieve this?
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0answers
52 views

Ambient helium level monitoring

I am looking for a solution to monitor and log ambient He levels down to 50-100ppm. The detector is meant to be installed in an experimental hall where a large number of Photo Multiplier Tubes are ...
2
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3answers
973 views

Apollo 11 gimbal lock flip

I've been studying gimbal lock and am puzzled by something in regards to the Apollo 11 mission mentioned on Wikipedia. They preferred an alternate solution using an indicator that would be triggered ...
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2answers
74 views

Data accuracy measurment

What is the meaning of sentence "Measured Data has 30 PPM accuracy"? I want to know what is the meaning of PPM accuracy.