Questions tagged [instrumentation]

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33 views

DIY linear position sensor IR switch - bad results

I have a test rig whereby a shaft (an M4 threaded bar) is being pulled ~11.5mm by a mechanism (rather not detail that) in about 20ms. I want to plot the movement of this shaft vs the mechanism pulling ...
• 115
39 views

Is there a wireless alternative of a Plumb Bob?

A Plumb Bob is an elegant and technically very simple device for maintaining vertical alignment of components at different heights during construction. Yet in practice its application in large-scale ...
• 101
62 views

How to identify a P&ID diagram symbol used by more than one control loop

I know that a P&ID symbol has a loop number. For instance in the image below the number is 0134. In case an instrumentation is used by more than one control loop (so I need to write more than one ...
• 121
1 vote
101 views

Help with designing support structures for instrument

I am an instrumentation engineer and I need your help with designing a support structure for a gas-measuring (precision) instrument. The instrument works in an emitter-detector configuration, and ...
1 vote
228 views

How to add a Gaussian noise signal with zero-mean in a given data set?

I have a real-time velocity measurement data set in a excel (.xlsx) file. I want to add the Gaussian noise signal with zero mean in this real-time data to create three set of pseudo measurements. ...
• 11
106 views

Effect of conductivity on time constant

Usually the governing equation for a thermometer is given by, $$\frac{m c_v}{h\;A_s}\dfrac{dT(t)}{dt}+ T(t) = T_\infty$$ Now for a problem the thermal conductivity of the thermometer bulb is also ...
227 views

Response time and time constant of Mercury thermometer

I searched to find differences between response time and time constant of a thermometer. So I found that those two are not same and we have to get 99.3% of the total step change to find response time ...
60 views

Question on fluid flow measurement uncertainty

Say you are trying to measure the liquid flow rate (mass or volume) through a pipe and you want to get the best measurement possible, and you have two flow meters. In one scenario, you put one flow ...
1 vote
93 views

Does P&ID have cross-reference same as electrical drawing?

In electrical i usually use cross-references to identify their symbols locations, I am still yet a lot to discover P&ID. So my question is, does P&ID have this such of thing?
224 views

Liquid Level Control System Resistance

In the figure attached for reference, it is given that if $R_1$ is the resistance element of valve 1 and τ ∝ $R_1$, but I am not able to understand it intuitively. If $R_1$ is high, output flow ...
36 views

P&ID questions on reports, connection, etc

Good day to all of you. I got some questions in my mind regarding on P&ID: In electrical, symbol will have their own default reference name for example "Motor" will use "M" , ...
1 vote
202 views

What does this P&ID symbol represent?

The symbol: Here is a part of the diagram:
• 25
1 vote
618 views

How is the YAW angle calculated by an IMU sensor?

Say a body rotates by 90 degrees, then the yaw angle will be 90 which can be calculated using the data provided by IMU. Now from that point, the body traverses some distance and is again rotated by 90 ...
29 views

In P&ID, what is the difference in terms of information between pipe and signal line In the diagram?

I got a question. In the P&ID, the pipe will have information such as size, spec, service, insulation size/type and etc. For signal line, is it necessary to have these kind of information? or they ...
1 vote
2k views

Identification a Symbol for P&ID's Standards

i have a question regarding on PID standards ISO 14617. Below is the attached symbol graphic, i seem cannot find anywhere what actually this symbol refer to from standards that i have looked up; PIP, ...
1 vote
31 views

Understanding the RMS noise for a given bandwidth

I would like to ask a technical question regarding the current source Keithley Series 2400 Model 2450. I am looking for a high stability current source capable of feeding some Hall probes with a ...
• 11
47 views

Determining stability of a current souce from the datasheet. How to?

Is there any way to calculate the stability of an instrument such as current sources and digital voltmeters from their datasheet? Let me provide one example. My application requires stable current ...
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1 vote
132 views

Can I use loadcell for vibrating force measurement?

Is it possible to use a load cell to measure a force that is vibrating? The idea is to measure that force that is getting into the load cell in a sweep of frequencies and vibration is NOT a noise. ...
33 views

Orientation of wire in linear position wire sensors

Talking about a wire potentiometer, I was wondering about the way it could be used after installation. as you know, wire sensors have a roll of wire inside them that come out of a hole, and it sounds ...
1 vote
32 views

AC voltage b/w DC power supply o/p and Ground

I have various Phoenix Contact Mini DC Power supply units (Pheonix Contact MINI-PS-100-240AC-5DC). It gives the correct DC Voltage across output terminals, as its supposed to. But I also noticed that ...
• 113
67 views

Is there an industry consensus standard for storing sensor data?

I would like to know what standard(s) may exist for formatting log data from sensors that record information such as: temperature pressure humidity vibration acceleration vector magnetic field vector ...
• 522
1 vote
112 views

Accurate method or instrument to measure density of shaving cream foam or whipped cream foam?

I am currently filling a "standard" stainless steel cup of known volume with foam and then I weigh it. Then I calculate density. This method is pretty messy and I have to be careful about how I fill ...
• 11
36 views

Why is there no widely-used standardized unit for indentation hardness?

The last hundred years have seen a great degree of standardization of units, and the expression of units of measurement in standardized, instrument-agnostic, objective terms, often in the SI units. ...
• 111
190 views

P&ID Symbol Identification Question

Does anyone know what these three symbols are? I am working to identify them but they do not seem to appear in the site: https://www.edrawsoft.com/pid-legend.php Does anyone know a better reference ...
45 views

Output matrix for system with accelerometer

Consider a generic second order state space SISO system \left[ \begin{array}{c}{\dot{\tilde{x}}_{1}} \\ {\dot{x}_{2}}\end{array}\right]=A \left[ \begin{array}{c}{\tilde{x}_{1}} \\ {\...
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133 views

Why do gimballed gyroscopes platforms need drive motors in order to maintain it's fixed orientation?

I have a fundamental misunderstanding about the role of gimbals and gyroscopes in determination of angular rotation rates (in inertial measurement units). A set of three gimbals enables an object ...
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1 vote
67 views

How to create a Liquid tight cable seal in a fuel storage tank

I am working on a telemetry system where a liquid level sensor (Hydrostatic pressure sensor) is used to monitor the volume of fuel (gasoline / diesel) in an underground storage tank. The sensor has ...
• 113
79 views

What is the name and purpose of this Instrumentation / Mechanical fitting

The component I am interested in is the blue "head" in the attached image. I call it the sensor head but will like to know if it has a specific industry name
• 113
40 views

How to measure number of strokes in a small space

I have read about a device called drumometer, which measures the number of strokes of hitting drum stick. I think this is almost the same, but instead, I would like to measure the number of strokes/...
• 113
37 views

If I replace a flow orifice with a Coriolis flow meter of the same size do I need to worry about pressure drop with the new Coriolis meter?

I have a 3 inch line with a 1.5 inch flow orifice. If I take out the flow orifice and put in a 1.5 inch coriolis meter will the pressure drop be the same or better with the new coriolis meter than ...
51 views

Operating a load cell below excitation voltage

I currently have this load cell, which has a 10V excitation voltage. However, there is a very nice/convenient load cell amplifier that works with an excitation voltage of 5 VDC. What are the ...
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399 views

How do solar balloons work at high altitudes?

I am interested in the challenges that Solar Balloons face when flying. For example, the high altitude could cause drastic changes in: Wind speed Temperature Moisture How does the unique design of ...
134 views

Selection of corrosion resistant material for mechanical testing apparatus

I want to build a 4-point bending apparatus for operating within a corrosive environment, using EXCO type corrosion solution as seen in ASTM Standard G46. Thus, in this highly corrosive environment, I ...
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247 views

Real world applications where one would use a force function in PLC programming?

I'm curious about which scenarios one would use a force function when using a PLC programming interface. Examples pertaining to process engineering, manufacturing, or industrial settings would be ...
1 vote
5k views

What is the difference between TE and TI?

I have done some research about the subject but I can't find the difference between Temperature Element (TE) and Temperature Indicator (TI) Here is an image of the P&ID of the project am ...
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103 views

Need help identifying component on hydraulic schematic

I'm relatively new to hydraulics, and I'm trying to understand this schematic. I've got the majority of the system figured out, but I cant for the life of me understand what the symbols at positions ...
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110 views

Automated valve for testing module

I work frequently with materials sensitive to oxygen and moisture, within a glove box. However, there are frequently times I want to move these samples from the glove box to a scanning electron ...
• 323
39 views

How can I determine pressure leakage in a pneumatic system?

I am an engineer currently designing a system in which the leakage of a hose is tested. The system consists of the following components: An air data system used to generate a pressure inside the hose....
• 101
138 views

Maximum Tensile strength confusion [closed]

Is the maximum tensile strength a property of a material ? If it is so then suppose I am given the maximum tensile strength of two flat spiral springs to be $30MN/m^2$ and I have to find the ...
1 vote
97 views

Not getting accurate readings from my multimeter

EDITED THIS POST FOR THE PEOPLE WHO PROVIDED ME WITH GREAT FEEDBACK I have been building a few simple project circuits, mainly to analyze electronic theory. The problem I'm having right now is that ...
• 161
1 vote
856 views

How to measure the pressure inside a bottle rocket?

I'm making a pressurized bottle rocket out of a plastic bottle, vinegar, baking soda and a cork. When the vinegar & baking soda react in the closed bottle, the pressure builds up but i want to ...
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1 vote
256 views

Calibration curve of an instrument

In the calibration procedure of an instrument (e.g. a pressure transducer), when we want to determine the calibration curve, is it a good choice to force the passage of the calibration curve through ...
1 vote
992 views

How do gimbals affect gyros?

"By mounting a gyro on a set of gimbal rings, the gyro is able to rotate freely in any direction. Even though the gimbal rings are tiled, twisted, or otherwise moved, the gyro remains in the plane in ...
4k views

How to get natural frequencies from accelerometer measurements?

I will be performing some tests and measuring the vibrations of a planetary gearbox. The accelerometer I will be using stays attached to the gearbox and saves the data into a log, which is available ...
• 399
52 views

Ambient helium level monitoring

I am looking for a solution to monitor and log ambient He levels down to 50-100ppm. The detector is meant to be installed in an experimental hall where a large number of Photo Multiplier Tubes are ...
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49 views

How would you measure the electrostatic field of a celestial body from its surface?

If we need to measure the Electrostatic field of a celestial body due to its interaction with space plasmas, What kind of instruments can be used to achieve this?
86 views

Data accuracy measurment

What is the meaning of sentence "Measured Data has 30 PPM accuracy"? I want to know what is the meaning of PPM accuracy.