# Questions tagged [heating-systems]

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### Does fog affect the efficiency of heat pumps?

Aggregate changes require way more energy than temperature changes. I vaguely remember that it takes about the same engergy to get water from 5°C to 80°C as getting ice to 1°C warm water. Hence my ...
• 813
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### Kanthal winding protection tube?

I have a kanthal wire wound around a D=4mm and L=15mm standard pneumatic tube to solve the problem of freezing one of the tube ports that is exposed to the outer environment (and hence can be clogged ...
• 101
42 views

### Carnot COP of Brine-water Heatpump

The maximum reachable efficiency for a heat pump can be calculated using Lorenz/Carnot cycle: $COP = \frac{T_H}{T_H - T_C}$ Where as the $T_H$ is the target temperature and $T_C$ is the reservoir ...
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### How to a convert a domestic gas C.H. Boiler to use Hydrogen?

What engineering changes are needed to convert a domestic gas boiler from running on natural gas (i.e. north sea gas) to hydrogen? The UK government is currently planning on switching to using ...
95 views

### What is this thermal insulating material?

I need to thermally insulate measurement chamber heated to 70°C. Material used for this task needs to be also electrically insulating. I tried various materials, but result was always clumsy and ...
45 views

### Need advice on building small incubator

I need to build an incubator that can vary temperature between 32 degrees and 36 degrees Celsius with discreet or continuous control. It needs to be made with perspex. It needs to be a two chamber ...
29 views

### Which heating and cooking techniques can be developed and taught massively and quickly?

HYPOTHESES: As an exercise in thought, let's take for granted some hypothesis: Let's leave aside the "need for electricity" to focus on the need for warming up a house and cooking some food....
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1 vote
70 views

### Running heat pump extra mid-day worth it?

I have a home with a heat pump on the south-facing side of my home, so it gets sun all day. I let my home cool off to 62℉ at night, and at 6 am, when it is usually the coldest outside, I warm my home ...
• 129
116 views

### Water through a Copper-Coil Heat-Exchanger: How much tubing will be enough?

I am making a hot-water tank for a boat. Within it will be a copper-coil heat-exchanger. Because copper tubing can be rather expensive, I am trying to better understand the design beforehand, and ...
27 views

### Whats the advantage of variable speed furnace blowers?

I'm in the market for a new heating and air conditioning unit for my home. Most offer variable speed blowers and the more expensive models are equipped with BLDC motors, which seem overkill. I am ...
• 160
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### What is the most appropriate set-up to pressurize air in a closed, confined space?

Assume that we have hot air in a confined closed space of 36 m^3. This hot air will be distributed trough a piping network of 500 m to be blown on trees. What is the most appropriate set-up to ...
57 views

### heat accumulation tank: hot water IN from top or bottom?

should heated water from a wood boiler enter a vertical cylindrical heat accumulation tank from the top or the bottom? mine goes in from the top and can barely achieve more than 60C, whilst the boiler ...
• 213
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### Optimal maintenance temperature and allowable drop for energy efficient hot water storage

I bought an under-sink electric boiler/hot water storage unit, for instant almost-boiling water. This device has an 'eco' mode, which broadens its hysteresis to 10 degrees C: it will allow the stored ...
• 103
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### Will Nichrome heating element react with steam?

I have a setup where nichrome heating element will be in contact with steam. Can it react with hot steam at 900 C? if it does, I can encase it in something like iron/stainless steel etc. If it doesn't ...
63 views

### Central Heating And Radiator Use

This question is related to a 5 bedroom property, with a radiator in each room. Whereby heating is turned on/off in bursts of 2 hours (2 hours on, 2 hours off). 3 rooms are used constantly and 2 (...
• 101
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### How to Calculate Change in Temperature Relative to Distance from a Heat Source

Just as the title suggests. I have recently conducted model human ear canal using a heated reservoir (water at consistent temperature) with silicone rubber tubing of all known geometric features. Many ...
676 views

### Do infrared heaters have a special blackbody radiation specturm?

There are many infrared heaters on the market, that I would put in 3 categories, filament in quartz tube, filament in ceramic, and carbon film (for flat panel heaters). They all claim to be "...
67 views

### How to vary, according to a given sinusoidal profile, the water temperature in a tank, independently of the temperature of the environment?

The water tank in Fig. 1, that is placed in a closed space, has a heat source inside (an experimental device) that liberates 20 to 50 kW of heat. However, the water temperature in the tank has to be ...
16 views

### For a given a molten metal (say copper), how do you determine the best material for a 3D printer flatbed? What about circuit board?

Suppose we had a 3D printer that can spew molten metal out of a 0.1mm hot nozzle and that we can control the heat at the last 5mm of the Tungsten hot nozzle's tip. I'm wondering then how would you get ...
27 views

### What are the advantages of energy metering over volume metering for district heat systems?

This 1992 book suggests that volume metering (ie, simply measuring and charging based the volume of hot water delivered to an end-user) may be superior to energy metering (ie, measuring the actual ...
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### Does it make sense to increase the thermal "dead weight" of a wood stove?

It is general practice to put a bucket of water on top of a wood stove to keep air humidity under control during the burning of the stove. But, such a bucket is also bound to keep some more thermal ...
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1 vote
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### Layman's thermal storage device

I am a software engineer and have hobbyist understanding about electronics, so this is something completely out of my scope. Just need to understand if my idea of thermal storage is practical at all. ...
62 views

Pic for reference - any HVAC pros around? https://i.sstatic.net/vMIGR.jpg The return duct matches the supply duct width, but the intake drop looks so small in comparison. Do I need to get this fixed ...
90 views

### Why materials with preferably a negative temperature coefficient for heating elements?

As far as I understood heating elements make use out of Joule heating. Hence, I wonder why one would preferably use materials with a negative temperature coefficient, therefore? Isn't it, that, the ...
• 123
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### Figuring out power requirements of pool heater elements powered directly by solar panels (panel efficiency & sun,evaporation, insulation, ), etc.)

EDIT 1: firstly, thank you for the comments and the input In this calculations the panels are already involved from the start as being the source (due to other connections to other systems when not ...
1 vote
70 views

### What is the efficiency of direct electric heating versus water heated via electricity?

I am attempting to keep plants warm in a greenhouse. Therefore, I assume that heating the soil should be most efficient, as that's what plants seem to care about the most (i.e. the temperature of the ...
• 111
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### How to transfer air heat easily?

Assume two buildings, one which generates a lot of air heat inside due to electrical equipment running etc. The buildings are 20-25 meters apart. Some questions: How can one easily transfer heater ...
52 views

### Momentary 250 Degree Celsius Air Heating Element

I am a complete novice and need some pointers for designing a heating element that will be installed in an air duct with 60mm diameter, to heat the air passing through it to 250deg C as fast as ...
1 vote
114 views

### Why do heat pumps take more time to heat up a space than resistive heaters?

I was wondering why do heat pumps heat a place so slowly as compared to the resistive heaters? (This thought just came to my mind when upon ironing my shirt the iron became hot quickly which is a ...
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### Heating an uninsulated campground building with high ceiling and radiant floor in New England

We have a beautiful dining hall designed for summer camp use, which we want to keep warm enough for group activities in the winter. The chosen heat is radiant floor, hoping to keep temperatures ...
155 views

### Is controlling humidity more precise when calculating with relative or absolute humidity?

I have a tubing system where I need to precisely control relative humidity. All my sensors are giving me temperature [°C] and ...
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### Does a photon impart energy on a surface (to raise its temp) if it goes THROUGH that surface?

Hi so I have this senior design project involving cooling human skin as it is irradiated by an infrared LED. Human skin not only is super absorbent to IR, but that IR goes THROUGH the thickness of it ...
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1 vote
56 views

### Use of Cast Acrylic sheets as glazing in a Flat Plate Collector for domestic water heating

I am designing a FPC for heating water. I was wondering about the feasibility of replacing the usual Low-iron tempered glass with Cast Acrylic sheets [owing to non-availability of the former where Im ...
42 views

### Comparing EPA emission limits between wood stoves and wood furnaces

Emission limits set by the EPA were updated in 2020. Currently, "Wood-burning stoves" are allowed 2.5 grams/hour of smoke emission [1]. On the other hand, "Wood-burning forced-air ...
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1 vote
456 views

### Kiln design, heating element holders

I intend to build a kiln in my free time over the next few months and am trying to avoid my past mistakes (heated too quickly, the kiln started cracking, the kanthal element melted and it was just ...
2k views

### Where water goes in split air conditioner system in "dry" mode?

In split air conditioners, there are two tubes connecting the indoor unit and the outdoor unit. According to the generic schematics I find online (like this one), they are part of the closed circuit ...
• 121
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### What are the factors I need to over/under estimate cost of heating in a box-like room? [closed]

For economic purposes, I am interested in studying the equilibrium of heat in a typical rectangular room from various sources, such as a classic radiator or vents. If I have a radiator sitting next to ...
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1 vote
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### Which uses less energy to heat a room: central steam heat, or a ceramic space heater?

My partner and I are having a friendly debate. We live in a walk-up style apartment building which has a radiator-like unit in the corner, which we believe is connected to some sort of central steam ...
• 113
365 views

### What temperature could be achieved when nitrogen is used as a refrigerant in the heatpump?

Well we all are familiar that nitrogen is used to achieve low temperature. I was just wondering how can one determine the temprature that could be achieved when phase change of nitrogen is done from ...
• 87
1 vote
339 views

### Heat Exchanger Design (Log Mean Temp Difference or Epsilon NTU Method)

I am trying to design two heat exchanger interfaces (shell and tube) that transfers heat to and from an intermediate heat pipe. The picture below gives a general idea of the problem I am trying to ...
• 111
1 vote
4k views

### What is the maximum temperature that could be achieved by a heat-pump and will it affect its efficiency?

I did some research and found out that one of the applications of a heat pump is as a water heater which means that it could achieve a temperature of about 100-degree Celsius. Will changing the ...
• 87
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### Yellow/Purple Flue gas in the stack

I was informed today by one of the on-site operators that they saw the colour of the stack flue gas change from colourless to a yellow/purple gas for a short period (~5mins) before returning back to ...
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1 vote
168 views

### Are these oscillations normal in a boiler?

I recently helped upgrade an old (±20years) 4ton boiler (heavy fuel oil) with some monitoring instrumentation. I decided to have a look at the data and I'm not sure if these kind of oscillations are ...
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### Determine Heating costs in \$/kWh for a specific location

Suppose I wanted to find the average heating price for a specific location in the US, where: heating_price: The price of equivalent unit energy intensity of heating energy source (e.g. natural gas), ...
• 113
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### Heat loss calculation and Energy Balance

The image shows the CAD model of the annealing zone in a galvanization simulator. The zone is electrically heated with a AC current of 5597A at 2.09V. This whole zone is surrounded by insulating ...
1k views

### Simulation of temperature in insulated box

I have a box outside that I want to insulate such that the temperature inside the box doesn't drop below 10°C given outside temperatures of (in the most extreme case - at night) -10°C. Inside the box ...
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### Best way to create separate heating zone for basement

I have 2 heating zone in the house: one for the upper floor and one for main and basement. Both zones split from the main duct into their own ducts and use a damper to close/open. Now I want to ...
• 121
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### Why isn't heat pump used for heating for most case

Heat pump cost 2-4 times lesser of energy to heat than non-heat pump heater, then why are non-heat pump heater still very common ? (1) At home, boiler and water radiator is used. (2) For district ...
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### How can Geothermal heat a home using the ~55 degree heat source of underground to a more usual 72 degree inside temperature?

It has bugged me for a while. If the earth is a constant 50-60-odd degrees several tens of feet beneath ground, and houses (I assume; ours at least does) don't drop down to lower than those ...
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1 vote