Questions tagged [elastic-modulus]

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1answer
58 views

Determine compressive modulus from compressive strength data in spec sheet?

Is it possible to determine the compressive modulus of a polyethylene foam using the following spec sheet? Minicel Type M Foam It doesn’t contain any information regarding the compressive modulus, ...
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4answers
2k views

What is the physical reasoning behind metal becoming stronger and harder if heat treated?

I was wondering that if a proper process of heat treatment (heating to a temperature above upper critical temperature, then soaking and then quenching) is applied to a metal like steel, then what ...
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2answers
99 views

Rule of Mixtures calculation

I do not understand something about the "rule of mixtures". Specifically, between upper bound elastic modulus and lower bound elastic modulus calculations, I seriously do not understand what ...
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2answers
139 views

Is there any difference between an-elastic and visco-elastic materials?

Most of the sources that I had read about either talks about anelasticity or viscoelasticity, they don't compare both. From what I have read so far ,both anelastic and viscoelastic materials are the ...
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3answers
225 views

Does perfectly elastic and perfectly plastic material make any sense?

I have been reading about the elasticity of materials and most often in engineering there is always some ideal concepts which are the extreme cases. So is there any particular definition to what is a ...
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0answers
38 views

Lumber dimensions for machinery ramp

I would love help if anyone is able to offer any. I need to make a ramp to move equipment down a 3.5’ retaining wall. The ramp is to be 12’ long. I was going to use two 6” x 6” beams of Douglas fir, ...
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2answers
59 views

Youngs modulus in ASTM specification A36

In ASTM A36 I cannot find a single mention of the Youngs modulus of the material. It does mention the tensile strength and yield point among other things. Where is such information normally indicated ...
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1answer
40 views

Why do we have two different Elastic Modulus in Tension and Torsion?

I was trying to get a value for elastic modulus for 316L stainless steel material from internet, and I saw a brochure online which was giving two different values for elastic modulus, one in tension ...
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1answer
126 views

Can the Elastic Modulus of an isotropic material be different in Tension and in compression?

I was conducting a FEA analysis of a symmetric isotropic structure under a loading condition. I will not mention the material I was using. Under that loading, one part of the structure was in tension ...
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3answers
193 views

Do all structures deform if put a load on them?

Suppose I have a concrete wall in front of me and I push on it, now it seems that I do work and the energy has magically disappeared. I am trying to figure out how this works, the explanation I ...
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0answers
22 views

Model for dynamic plate deformation

I would like to gather ideas to model the dynamic behaviour of a plate with variable thickness. The assumption are: Small deformations. The plate is all made of the same material with variable ...
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3answers
108 views

Axially loaded member with a spring / Mechanic of Materials

i've been struggling with this problem i made up. It is about a cylindrical copper member (diameter $d=20$ mm and length $L=250$ mm) with a spring (stiffness $k=166,5$ kN/mm) fixed on a wall, as the ...
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1answer
48 views

How does Nonlinear Viscous Damping work? In what way are Viscous Dampers typically nonlinear?

Viscoelastic materials like metal cables/wires/strings/webs/beams can be modeled with a variety of combinations of springs and dampers as described here. For example, one simple common structure to ...
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2answers
416 views

How much does the elasticity (Young's Modulus) of concrete and asphalt change with ambient temperature?

I'm assuming here that all materials will have a change in elasticity due to thermal expansion/contraction and a resultant reduction/increase in the strength of the bonds of the atoms leading to a ...
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0answers
26 views

Can concepts like “critical damping” or “resonant frequency” be applied to more complex systems than just a spring and damper in parallel?

I am trying to do some modeling analysis by representing materials with parallel systems of springs and dampers. In the simplest case with just one spring parallel to a damper, we have the traditional ...
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0answers
26 views

Is there any formula to model the effective Young's Modulus of a fluid-filled spherical shell?

I am creating composites of a host epoxy and filler particles which are thin-walled fluid-filled shells. Using the Halpin-Tsai equations, for example, I can predict the bulk composite Young's modulus ...
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0answers
27 views

Shear modulus in terms of 2 Young's moduli and Poisson ratio

I have two moduli, EY and EZ, and the poisson ratio NUYZ, and the equation for the shear modulus that I am using is $G = \frac{EY*EZ}{EY+EZ+2*EY*NUYZ}$ but I am not sure where it comes from. I tried ...
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0answers
45 views

Is there a standards organization or methodology to determine the elastic material properties of common materials?

Is there a standards organization or methodology to determine the elastic material properties of common materials? What constants are normally used to define these properties? More specifically, the ...
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8answers
5k views

Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?

I have a steel coil spring that is used by compression. It is too strong, and I would like to reduce its strength by some fraction, ideally keeping its length. Reducing it to roughly half would be ...
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1answer
27 views

Overextending and cutting a coil spring

This is related to my recent question Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?. The answer here could create an additional answer there, but I do not expect that. The difference to that ...
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1answer
56 views

Elastic Modulus in Arbitrary Direction for Orthotropic Material

Suppose I have a material with an elastic modulus of Ex in the x direction and an Elastic modulus of Ey in the y direction. How would I find the effective elastic modulus in an arbitrary direction (...
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2answers
10k views

How to calculate the diameter of a transmission shaft from RPM & Torque

If I know the torque and rpm that the shaft need to operate at, can I calculate the diameter of the shaft? A motor operating at 60 rpm applying 1,000 Nm of force on a shaft that has a modulus of ...
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1answer
92 views

Is the young's modulus of a braided rope stronger than the sum of its parts?

I know that if I have a thin rope of Young's modulus Y, then getting n of these ropes and holding them in parallel gives a Young's modulus of nY. If I was to braid/weave them, does this affect the ...
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1answer
32 views

Are there ways to measure modulus of elasticity with an experimental apparatus?

It seems that measuring the modulus of elasticity of a material always involves the strength of materials or linear elasticity approach, where they make some experimental measurements for variables ...
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2answers
376 views

Is it possible to calculate Young's Modulus of Clay from load-controlled tests?

I'm trying to get the compressive strength (and Young's modulus) of a clay sample. The method I found is called 'Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil'. According to ASTM D2166M, I have ...
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0answers
16 views

What's the methodology for adequate tetrahedralisation?

I'm running a linear elastic solver generating the tetrahedron's using tetGen. It's not clear to me though how one defines what's an acceptable tetra density that provides sufficient accuracy. You ...
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0answers
35 views

Thin or thick wall for expanding rubber pressure cylinder

If I want to expand a rubber cylinder by a certain internal volume - with all else held constant (type of material, length and radius (without constraining it), etc.) will a thinner or thicker walled ...
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1answer
30 views

Drucker-Prager Model Parameters, a Proper Choice

My task is to write a code from scratch for 3D elastoplasticity, namely a DP model (see for example DeSouza Neto, et al., 2008, Chapter 8) having yield surface $$ f(\mathbf{\sigma},c) = \sqrt{J_2(\...
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0answers
22 views

Must I use viscoplastic model to fit the thermoplastic material

I need to do the simulation with a specified material. It is known as a thermoplastic. During the simulation, I need to define the material property. I need to choose whether it is viscoplastic or ...
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2answers
362 views

Stiffness Tensor in Two Dimensions

I understand plane strain/stress relations are typically utilized for 2D materials. I was wondering if we consider a 2D material acting in a 2D space, would we have a stiffness matrix such as \begin{...
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0answers
98 views

Shape memory alloy fibers with low Young's Modulus?

I am wondering if there exist any species of shape memory alloy fibers with low Young's Modulus at room temperature, for an application I'm working on. So far I've played with Flexinol, but it is a ...
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2answers
2k views

Is strain energy the same as potential energy, or something differen?

Sorry for this stupid, basic question. But I got hung up on it. We know from Clapeyron's theorem that the strain(internal) energy of an elastically deformed body is equal to half the work $$ U=\...
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2answers
2k views

Viscoelasticity and Hyperelastic model, history and difference

Actually, I see some papers use viscoelasticity or hyperelastic model for the same materials. It seems to me that those models were invented in different eras, and the hyperelastic is a newer model ...
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2answers
315 views

How to deal with rotation of an element in theory of elasticity?

As you know in linear theory of elasticity equations for strains are given as (according to picture): But what will be if an element will just rotate (strain equation is on the picture): Intuitively ...
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1answer
151 views

Stiffness of highly compressible materials

A foam which I have performed compression tests on shows results similar to the following hysteresis cycle: (Note that the first bend in the graph is not the yield point; the hysteresis cycle returns ...
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2answers
271 views

Thick walled cylinder theory - Stress/strain in ballooned out tube

I want to work out how much I can expand a piece of rubber tubing before it ruptures. The wall is 0.75mm and the ID 5mm. Hence I am working out the stress/strain from thick-walled cylinder theory ...
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1answer
814 views

What are the elastic constants for tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP)?

I have six known elastic constants of TZP. What is the relationship between the known and the unknown constants? Known constants (GPa): $c_{11}=327\\ c_{12}=100\\ c_{13}=62\\ c_{33}=264\\ c_{44}=...
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2answers
120 views

Calculate or approximate force required to expand a thin-walled elastic cylinder held rigidly at both ends?

How might one calculate or approximate the negative pressure applied to the outer surface of a cylinder required to expand it a certain distance, when held open rigidly at each end? The cylinder ID = ...
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1answer
495 views

Force to compress flexible elastic tubing

How would one work out the force required to compress flat, using a flat bar on top pressing down, a thick walled (15mm OD 10mm ID) piece of flexible plastic (PVC) tubing i.e. so reducing the x-...
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2answers
156 views

Young's modulus for composite auxetic material

If you look at the screenshot you will see a composite auxetic material. How would you calculate the E-modulus for it? Is it as simple as the rule of mixtures, ...
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2answers
186 views

Should I discard part of the data (steel traction test)

(please excuse my bad English. I don't speak English) I have to deal with an old hydraulic machine, recovered from a deposit. I have no knowledge on mechanical engineering. Only civil engineering. ...
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1answer
43 views

How to properly validate transverse isotropic elasticity Finite Element Code

I have written a piece of code solving the linear elasticity problem on transversely isotropic materials (before that, the code only supported isotropic materials). I would like to validate it before ...
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1answer
87 views

What is the definition of Ecm in equation 7.10 of EC2?

In the old British standard we use a time dependent modulus of elasticity of concrete to calculate crack width, which is usually about half of the 28-day Ec for long term modulus. In Eurocode EN 1992-...
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1answer
199 views

Plane Strain in Anisotropic Materials

I'm looking into plane strain and I'm a little confused about the concept. If we assume the material is much longer in the $z$-direction, the typical assumptions I see are \begin{equation*} |\...
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0answers
130 views

Database of elastic constants

I'm interested in locating a database containing the elastic constants (the tensor matrix) for a variety of materials (preferably for a variety of symmetry classes). I don't have a particular material ...
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1answer
2k views

How to Calculate the Minimum Radius a Rod Can Can Be Bent Staying in the Elastic Range?

I am wondering if there is a formula (or how to derive one) for calculating the minimum radius a rod (with a given radius/diameter) can be bent around while staying in the elastic range. Obviously, ...
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1answer
1k views

Tau max value in torsion calculation [duplicate]

I am going to try and ask this question again. In this formula to calculate shear stress in a solid shaft: τ = T r / J If I want to solve for the radius; I should use the modulus of rigidity ...
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1answer
663 views

Elastic bands vs Spring Steel?

My friend and I are working on a project requiring for us to propel a syringe forward in a small container with significant force. We are debating whether to use an elastic band wrapped around the ...
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2answers
670 views

Flexural modulus for a beam fixed at one end

For a beam supported at both ends with a mass in the middle, the flexural modulus is given by: $$E_b = \frac{F L^3}{48I d}$$ with I as the area moment $$I = \frac{1}{12}wh^3$$ How does the ...
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1answer
116 views

Number of layers in a laminated steel transplant, using Young's Modulus

I'm not sure if my calculations are correct for the above question. $$ E = \frac{\sigma}{\epsilon} = \frac{\frac{My}{I}}{\frac{\delta}{L}} = k. \frac{1}{I} $$ Where k is constant for both beams, ...