# Questions tagged [elastic-modulus]

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### Is there any formula to model the effective Young's Modulus of a fluid-filled spherical shell?

I am creating composites of a host epoxy and filler particles which are thin-walled fluid-filled shells. Using the Halpin-Tsai equations, for example, I can predict the bulk composite Young's modulus ...
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### Shear modulus in terms of 2 Young's moduli and Poisson ratio

I have two moduli, EY and EZ, and the poisson ratio NUYZ, and the equation for the shear modulus that I am using is $G = \frac{EY*EZ}{EY+EZ+2*EY*NUYZ}$ but I am not sure where it comes from. I tried ...
29 views

### Determine compressive modulus from compressive strength data in spec sheet?

Is it possible to determine the compressive modulus of a polyethylene foam using the following spec sheet? Minicel Type M Foam It doesn’t contain any information regarding the compressive modulus, ...
18 views

### How are the elastic properties for orthotropic materials ordered?

How are the elastic properties for orthotropic materials ordered? More specifically, orthotropic materials have three axes of symmetry, so what is the conventional ordering of the axes? In more ...
44 views

### Is there a standards organization or methodology to determine the elastic material properties of common materials?

Is there a standards organization or methodology to determine the elastic material properties of common materials? What constants are normally used to define these properties? More specifically, the ...
19 views

### Overextending and cutting a coil spring

This is related to my recent question Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?. The answer here could create an additional answer there, but I do not expect that. The difference to that ...
3k views

### Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?

I have a steel coil spring that is used by compression. It is too strong, and I would like to reduce its strength by some fraction, ideally keeping its length. Reducing it to roughly half would be ...
25 views

### Elastic Modulus in Arbitrary Direction for Orthotropic Material

Suppose I have a material with an elastic modulus of Ex in the x direction and an Elastic modulus of Ey in the y direction. How would I find the effective elastic modulus in an arbitrary direction (...
55 views

### Is the young's modulus of a braided rope stronger than the sum of its parts?

I know that if I have a thin rope of Young's modulus Y, then getting n of these ropes and holding them in parallel gives a Young's modulus of nY. If I was to braid/weave them, does this affect the ...
29 views

### Are there ways to measure modulus of elasticity with an experimental apparatus?

It seems that measuring the modulus of elasticity of a material always involves the strength of materials or linear elasticity approach, where they make some experimental measurements for variables ...
16 views

### What's the methodology for adequate tetrahedralisation?

I'm running a linear elastic solver generating the tetrahedron's using tetGen. It's not clear to me though how one defines what's an acceptable tetra density that provides sufficient accuracy. You ...
32 views

### Thin or thick wall for expanding rubber pressure cylinder

If I want to expand a rubber cylinder by a certain internal volume - with all else held constant (type of material, length and radius (without constraining it), etc.) will a thinner or thicker walled ...
27 views

1k views

### Viscoelasticity and Hyperelastic model, history and difference

Actually, I see some papers use viscoelasticity or hyperelastic model for the same materials. It seems to me that those models were invented in different eras, and the hyperelastic is a newer model ...
118 views

### Stiffness of highly compressible materials

A foam which I have performed compression tests on shows results similar to the following hysteresis cycle: (Note that the first bend in the graph is not the yield point; the hysteresis cycle returns ...
195 views

### Thick walled cylinder theory - Stress/strain in ballooned out tube

I want to work out how much I can expand a piece of rubber tubing before it ruptures. The wall is 0.75mm and the ID 5mm. Hence I am working out the stress/strain from thick-walled cylinder theory ...
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### Calculate or approximate force required to expand a thin-walled elastic cylinder held rigidly at both ends?

How might one calculate or approximate the negative pressure applied to the outer surface of a cylinder required to expand it a certain distance, when held open rigidly at each end? The cylinder ID = ...
291 views

### Force to compress flexible elastic tubing

How would one work out the force required to compress flat, using a flat bar on top pressing down, a thick walled (15mm OD 10mm ID) piece of flexible plastic (PVC) tubing i.e. so reducing the x-...
134 views

### Young's modulus for composite auxetic material

If you look at the screenshot you will see a composite auxetic material. How would you calculate the E-modulus for it? Is it as simple as the rule of mixtures, ...
150 views

### Should I discard part of the data (steel traction test)

(please excuse my bad English. I don't speak English) I have to deal with an old hydraulic machine, recovered from a deposit. I have no knowledge on mechanical engineering. Only civil engineering. ...
41 views

### How to properly validate transverse isotropic elasticity Finite Element Code

I have written a piece of code solving the linear elasticity problem on transversely isotropic materials (before that, the code only supported isotropic materials). I would like to validate it before ...
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### What is the definition of Ecm in equation 7.10 of EC2?

In the old British standard we use a time dependent modulus of elasticity of concrete to calculate crack width, which is usually about half of the 28-day Ec for long term modulus. In Eurocode EN 1992-...
122 views

### Database of elastic constants

I'm interested in locating a database containing the elastic constants (the tensor matrix) for a variety of materials (preferably for a variety of symmetry classes). I don't have a particular material ...
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### Plane Strain in Anisotropic Materials

I'm looking into plane strain and I'm a little confused about the concept. If we assume the material is much longer in the $z$-direction, the typical assumptions I see are \begin{equation*} |\...
743 views

### Tau max value in torsion calculation [duplicate]

I am going to try and ask this question again. In this formula to calculate shear stress in a solid shaft: τ = T r / J If I want to solve for the radius; I should use the modulus of rigidity ...
10k views

### How to calculate the diameter of a transmission shaft from RPM & Torque

If I know the torque and rpm that the shaft need to operate at, can I calculate the diameter of the shaft? A motor operating at 60 rpm applying 1,000 Nm of force on a shaft that has a modulus of ...
194 views

### Stiffness Tensor in Two Dimensions

I understand plane strain/stress relations are typically utilized for 2D materials. I was wondering if we consider a 2D material acting in a 2D space, would we have a stiffness matrix such as \begin{...
402 views

### Elastic bands vs Spring Steel?

My friend and I are working on a project requiring for us to propel a syringe forward in a small container with significant force. We are debating whether to use an elastic band wrapped around the ...
834 views

### How to Calculate the Minimum Radius a Rod Can Can Be Bent Staying in the Elastic Range?

I am wondering if there is a formula (or how to derive one) for calculating the minimum radius a rod (with a given radius/diameter) can be bent around while staying in the elastic range. Obviously, ...
250 views

### How to deal with rotation of an element in theory of elasticity?

As you know in linear theory of elasticity equations for strains are given as (according to picture): But what will be if an element will just rotate (strain equation is on the picture): Intuitively ...
362 views

### How much does the elasticity (Young's Modulus) of concrete and asphalt change with ambient temperature?

I'm assuming here that all materials will have a change in elasticity due to thermal expansion/contraction and a resultant reduction/increase in the strength of the bonds of the atoms leading to a ...
539 views

### Flexural modulus for a beam fixed at one end

For a beam supported at both ends with a mass in the middle, the flexural modulus is given by: $$E_b = \frac{F L^3}{48I d}$$ with I as the area moment $$I = \frac{1}{12}wh^3$$ How does the ...
105 views

### Number of layers in a laminated steel transplant, using Young's Modulus

I'm not sure if my calculations are correct for the above question. $$E = \frac{\sigma}{\epsilon} = \frac{\frac{My}{I}}{\frac{\delta}{L}} = k. \frac{1}{I}$$ Where k is constant for both beams, ...
69 views

### how does thickness affect the maximum crushing strength and modulus of rupture of wood?

I have modulus of rupture (MOR) and maximum crushing strength of various species of wood. I am trying to understand how the thickness of wood a wood beam laid flat on the ground would affect both ...
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### Spring Diameter Question

Aluminum 6061-T6 has a density of 2.7 g/cm^3, a Young's modulus of 69 GPa, and an ultimate tensile strength of 310 MPa. If a "spring" were to be made by pulling a 10cm long cylinder of material in ...
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### Relating internal stress of an o-ring due to thermal expansion to amount of free volume in a gland

I am trying to come up with an analytical way to determine the optimal gland size that an elastomer o-ring will sit in. The amount of free space in the gland is determined by the thickness of two ...
381 views

### Material with very small Young's modulus

I'm looking for a material with a Young's modulus of less than 100 Pa. I've looked at elastomers, but I haven't had any luck.