Questions tagged [elastic-modulus]

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orthotropic elastic moduli for laminated plates versus parallel rods

I am very confused about the directions of shear stresses in orthotropic materials, with two examples in particular. In a stack of laminated metal plates for example (the z-direction taken to be ...
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1 answer
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Is there a rubber material with an elastic modulus lower than 1 MPa?

I'm looking for an elastic material (e.g., a rubber), whose tangential elastic modulus E is lower than 1 MPa (0.5 MPa would be enough). Anyone has an idea of which kind of rubber could fit this ...
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What is the difference between Hooke's Law and Young's Modulus?

In the elastic region where stress is proportional to strain up to elastic limit which is we call Young's Modulus (E). My question is if that is E, then what is Hooke's Law (K=F/x spring stiffness). I ...
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How to measure compression modulus of a paper-thin elastic sheet

Is there anyway to measure the young's modulus with a compressive force on a paper thin elastic sheet (made out of a rubbery-fabric material)? I wish to compress the sheet in an orientation that ...
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3 answers
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Difference between Stiffness (K) and Modulus of Elasticity (E)?

Stiffness (F=Kx) is the extent to which an object resists deformation in response to an applied force. Elastic Modulus (E=Stress/Strain) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance ...
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4 answers
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What is the physical reasoning behind metal becoming stronger and harder if heat treated?

I was wondering that if a proper process of heat treatment (heating to a temperature above upper critical temperature, then soaking and then quenching) is applied to a metal like steel, then what ...
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3 votes
2 answers
374 views

Is there any difference between an-elastic and visco-elastic materials?

Most of the sources that I had read about either talks about anelasticity or viscoelasticity, they don't compare both. From what I have read so far ,both anelastic and viscoelastic materials are the ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Does perfectly elastic and perfectly plastic material make any sense?

I have been reading about the elasticity of materials and most often in engineering there is always some ideal concepts which are the extreme cases. So is there any particular definition to what is a ...
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Lumber dimensions for machinery ramp

I would love help if anyone is able to offer any. I need to make a ramp to move equipment down a 3.5’ retaining wall. The ramp is to be 12’ long. I was going to use two 6” x 6” beams of Douglas fir, ...
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Why do we have two different Elastic Modulus in Tension and Torsion?

I was trying to get a value for elastic modulus for 316L stainless steel material from internet, and I saw a brochure online which was giving two different values for elastic modulus, one in tension ...
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1 answer
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Can the Elastic Modulus of an isotropic material be different in Tension and in compression?

I was conducting a FEA analysis of a symmetric isotropic structure under a loading condition. I will not mention the material I was using. Under that loading, one part of the structure was in tension ...
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2 answers
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Youngs modulus in ASTM specification A36

In ASTM A36 I cannot find a single mention of the Youngs modulus of the material. It does mention the tensile strength and yield point among other things. Where is such information normally indicated ...
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Do all structures deform if put a load on them?

Suppose I have a concrete wall in front of me and I push on it, now it seems that I do work and the energy has magically disappeared. I am trying to figure out how this works, the explanation I ...
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Model for dynamic plate deformation

I would like to gather ideas to model the dynamic behaviour of a plate with variable thickness. The assumption are: Small deformations. The plate is all made of the same material with variable ...
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3 answers
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Axially loaded member with a spring / Mechanic of Materials

i've been struggling with this problem i made up. It is about a cylindrical copper member (diameter $d=20$ mm and length $L=250$ mm) with a spring (stiffness $k=166,5$ kN/mm) fixed on a wall, as the ...
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1 answer
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How does Nonlinear Viscous Damping work? In what way are Viscous Dampers typically nonlinear?

Viscoelastic materials like metal cables/wires/strings/webs/beams can be modeled with a variety of combinations of springs and dampers as described here. For example, one simple common structure to ...
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2 answers
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Rule of Mixtures calculation

I do not understand something about the "rule of mixtures". Specifically, between upper bound elastic modulus and lower bound elastic modulus calculations, I seriously do not understand what ...
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Can concepts like “critical damping” or “resonant frequency” be applied to more complex systems than just a spring and damper in parallel?

I am trying to do some modeling analysis by representing materials with parallel systems of springs and dampers. In the simplest case with just one spring parallel to a damper, we have the traditional ...
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Is there any formula to model the effective Young's Modulus of a fluid-filled spherical shell?

I am creating composites of a host epoxy and filler particles which are thin-walled fluid-filled shells. Using the Halpin-Tsai equations, for example, I can predict the bulk composite Young's modulus ...
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Shear modulus in terms of 2 Young's moduli and Poisson ratio

I have two moduli, EY and EZ, and the poisson ratio NUYZ, and the equation for the shear modulus that I am using is $G = \frac{EY*EZ}{EY+EZ+2*EY*NUYZ}$ but I am not sure where it comes from. I tried ...
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Determine compressive modulus from compressive strength data in spec sheet?

Is it possible to determine the compressive modulus of a polyethylene foam using the following spec sheet? Minicel Type M Foam It doesn’t contain any information regarding the compressive modulus, ...
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Is there a standards organization or methodology to determine the elastic material properties of common materials?

Is there a standards organization or methodology to determine the elastic material properties of common materials? What constants are normally used to define these properties? More specifically, the ...
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Overextending and cutting a coil spring

This is related to my recent question Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?. The answer here could create an additional answer there, but I do not expect that. The difference to that ...
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8 votes
8 answers
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Can I weaken a coil spring consisting of spring steel?

I have a steel coil spring that is used by compression. It is too strong, and I would like to reduce its strength by some fraction, ideally keeping its length. Reducing it to roughly half would be ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Elastic Modulus in Arbitrary Direction for Orthotropic Material

Suppose I have a material with an elastic modulus of Ex in the x direction and an Elastic modulus of Ey in the y direction. How would I find the effective elastic modulus in an arbitrary direction (...
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Is the young's modulus of a braided rope stronger than the sum of its parts?

I know that if I have a thin rope of Young's modulus Y, then getting n of these ropes and holding them in parallel gives a Young's modulus of nY. If I was to braid/weave them, does this affect the ...
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Are there ways to measure modulus of elasticity with an experimental apparatus?

It seems that measuring the modulus of elasticity of a material always involves the strength of materials or linear elasticity approach, where they make some experimental measurements for variables ...
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What's the methodology for adequate tetrahedralisation?

I'm running a linear elastic solver generating the tetrahedron's using tetGen. It's not clear to me though how one defines what's an acceptable tetra density that provides sufficient accuracy. You ...
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Thin or thick wall for expanding rubber pressure cylinder

If I want to expand a rubber cylinder by a certain internal volume - with all else held constant (type of material, length and radius (without constraining it), etc.) will a thinner or thicker walled ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Drucker-Prager Model Parameters, a Proper Choice

My task is to write a code from scratch for 3D elastoplasticity, namely a DP model (see for example DeSouza Neto, et al., 2008, Chapter 8) having yield surface $$ f(\mathbf{\sigma},c) = \sqrt{J_2(\...
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Must I use viscoplastic model to fit the thermoplastic material

I need to do the simulation with a specified material. It is known as a thermoplastic. During the simulation, I need to define the material property. I need to choose whether it is viscoplastic or ...
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Is it possible to calculate Young's Modulus of Clay from load-controlled tests?

I'm trying to get the compressive strength (and Young's modulus) of a clay sample. The method I found is called 'Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil'. According to ASTM D2166M, I have ...
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Shape memory alloy fibers with low Young's Modulus?

I am wondering if there exist any species of shape memory alloy fibers with low Young's Modulus at room temperature, for an application I'm working on. So far I've played with Flexinol, but it is a ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Is strain energy the same as potential energy, or something differen?

Sorry for this stupid, basic question. But I got hung up on it. We know from Clapeyron's theorem that the strain(internal) energy of an elastically deformed body is equal to half the work $$ U=\...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Viscoelasticity and Hyperelastic model, history and difference

Actually, I see some papers use viscoelasticity or hyperelastic model for the same materials. It seems to me that those models were invented in different eras, and the hyperelastic is a newer model ...
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1 answer
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Stiffness of highly compressible materials

A foam which I have performed compression tests on shows results similar to the following hysteresis cycle: (Note that the first bend in the graph is not the yield point; the hysteresis cycle returns ...
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2 answers
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Thick walled cylinder theory - Stress/strain in ballooned out tube

I want to work out how much I can expand a piece of rubber tubing before it ruptures. The wall is 0.75mm and the ID 5mm. Hence I am working out the stress/strain from thick-walled cylinder theory ...
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2 votes
2 answers
149 views

Calculate or approximate force required to expand a thin-walled elastic cylinder held rigidly at both ends?

How might one calculate or approximate the negative pressure applied to the outer surface of a cylinder required to expand it a certain distance, when held open rigidly at each end? The cylinder ID = ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Force to compress flexible elastic tubing

How would one work out the force required to compress flat, using a flat bar on top pressing down, a thick walled (15mm OD 10mm ID) piece of flexible plastic (PVC) tubing i.e. so reducing the x-...
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1 vote
2 answers
186 views

Young's modulus for composite auxetic material

If you look at the screenshot you will see a composite auxetic material. How would you calculate the E-modulus for it? Is it as simple as the rule of mixtures, ...
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2 answers
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Should I discard part of the data (steel traction test)

(please excuse my bad English. I don't speak English) I have to deal with an old hydraulic machine, recovered from a deposit. I have no knowledge on mechanical engineering. Only civil engineering. ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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How to properly validate transverse isotropic elasticity Finite Element Code

I have written a piece of code solving the linear elasticity problem on transversely isotropic materials (before that, the code only supported isotropic materials). I would like to validate it before ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What is the definition of Ecm in equation 7.10 of EC2?

In the old British standard we use a time dependent modulus of elasticity of concrete to calculate crack width, which is usually about half of the 28-day Ec for long term modulus. In Eurocode EN 1992-...
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1 vote
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Database of elastic constants

I'm interested in locating a database containing the elastic constants (the tensor matrix) for a variety of materials (preferably for a variety of symmetry classes). I don't have a particular material ...
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Plane Strain in Anisotropic Materials

I'm looking into plane strain and I'm a little confused about the concept. If we assume the material is much longer in the $z$-direction, the typical assumptions I see are \begin{equation*} |\...
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Tau max value in torsion calculation [duplicate]

I am going to try and ask this question again. In this formula to calculate shear stress in a solid shaft: τ = T r / J If I want to solve for the radius; I should use the modulus of rigidity ...
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1 vote
2 answers
11k views

How to calculate the diameter of a transmission shaft from RPM & Torque

If I know the torque and rpm that the shaft need to operate at, can I calculate the diameter of the shaft? A motor operating at 60 rpm applying 1,000 Nm of force on a shaft that has a modulus of ...
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1 vote
2 answers
545 views

Stiffness Tensor in Two Dimensions

I understand plane strain/stress relations are typically utilized for 2D materials. I was wondering if we consider a 2D material acting in a 2D space, would we have a stiffness matrix such as \begin{...
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1 answer
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Elastic bands vs Spring Steel?

My friend and I are working on a project requiring for us to propel a syringe forward in a small container with significant force. We are debating whether to use an elastic band wrapped around the ...
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4 votes
1 answer
2k views

How to Calculate the Minimum Radius a Rod Can Can Be Bent Staying in the Elastic Range?

I am wondering if there is a formula (or how to derive one) for calculating the minimum radius a rod (with a given radius/diameter) can be bent around while staying in the elastic range. Obviously, ...
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