Questions tagged [control-engineering]

Questions about the models and theories of control engineering and the application of control theory to design systems with desired behaviors.

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75 views

PID Control: Is adding a delay before the next loop a good idea?

I am implementing PID control in C++ to make a differential drive robot turn an accurate number of degrees, but I am having many issues. Exiting control loop early due to fast loop runtime If the ...
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1answer
121 views

What's the difference between Fuzzy PI, PD and PID controllers?

I am investigating fuzzy control and I am a little confused, I have come across 3 models and I can't quite fathom out what is going on. In this PD+I controller, I can see the error signal being ...
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38 views

Controlling the dynamics of nonlinear systems with an unknown steady state

On the one hand, the question is simple, on the other hand, I need the help of specialists in control theory. Let's take a simple gradient dynamical system: $\frac{dx}{dt}=\frac{df}{dx}$ where $f=e^{-(...
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3answers
242 views

How to convert a DC motor into a servo motor using a rotary encoder and a microcontroller?

Operating/ Rated Voltage: 24V No load Speed: 350 rpm No load Current: 150mA (max) Max efficiency: 1.4 Kg-cm/300 rpm/ 14.2W/ 0.87A Max power: 4.5 Kg-cm/180 rpm/28.2W/1.4A Stall Current: 2.9 A (max) ...
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53 views

How to calculate frequency response of the system? and find missing values [duplicate]

I can convert the H(s) into the frequency response which is: 𝐻(π‘—πœ”) = πœ‡(π‘—πœ”/(1+ π‘—πœ”πœ)) and the output in the steady state is: 𝑦(𝑑) = |𝐻(𝑗2)|sin(2𝑑 + ⟨𝐻(𝑗2)) The phase: ⟨𝐻(𝑗2), has to ...
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1answer
27 views

What does "analytical design" mean?

What is meant by "designing analytically" ? Especially in control systems design Does it mean theoretically design?
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330 views

Find the point where locus crosses the damping ratio line?

Given a transfer function, find the point where locus crosses the damping ratio of 0.5? $$G(s)= \dfrac{K(s-2)(s-4)}{s^2+6s+25}$$ The textbook only shows this solved by Matlab or program, I would like ...
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72 views

How to manage two control loops as safety when BPCS is shared?

I am trying to wrap my head around some excerpts from: CCPS Layer of Protection Analysis CCPS Guidelines for Independent Protection Layers and Initiating Events IEC 61511 I am trying to understand ...
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29 views

How could we calculate the coefficient of a PI controller (ki - kp) which regulates the voltage of the DC bus link of a three-phase inverter?

From my calculations I arrived at a non-linear equation : $$ C\frac{dV_{dc}}{dt} = 3e_q\frac{I_q}{2}V_{dc} - \frac{V_{dc}}{R_{dc}} $$ I have calculated the operating points which are $I_q = 9.58A$, $...
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66 views

Is it true that points of root locus only satisfiy the angle condition?

So , I was reading a course book : ''Modern Control Engineering '' by Ogata and I came forward this statement that made me skeptical: ''The points of root locus only satisfiy the angle - condition. ...
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25 views

Absolute Digital Encoder Speed measurement

I am using a 16-bit absolute magnetic encoder and I get the position from SSI 3 wire, I mean digital outputs for my position control application. I have a problem with getting accurate speed data. I ...
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53 views

Why not to calibrate accelerometer in IMU filters?

I have been reading various research papers regarding IMU filters and I came to the question of why do we not need to calibrate the accelerometer values as we do for the gyroscope and magnetometer?
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How to design a kalman filter with different sampling rates?

This question is related to https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22598107/kalman-filter-with-redundant-state-measurements. How would one design a Kalman Filter (or EKF) when two measurements of the ...
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90 views

What does this P&ID symbol represent?

The symbol: Here is a part of the diagram:
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18 views

PSCAD question regarding how to use graphs

so this question is to do with coursework, but I just need some guidance as I am not exactly sure where I'm going wrong. I missed my 2 weeks of practical classes due to my roommate having covid-19, so ...
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63 views

Choice for HEAVY blacksmith table

I have an old 7,000 lb. blacksmith table (I had it weighed at truck stop). Similar to the one this man has: Sorry for the size of the pic. I need to lift one end the way he is doing and I have a farm ...
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54 views

Evaluating Steady State Error Constant for a Discrete Time Control System with Kronecker Delta Input

Hello there, hope you are doing well. I am working on a Discrete Time Control Systems homework and at a certain part of it, the question asks me to find the steady state error of the system. I ...
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43 views

How to model a double transfer function in Simulink?

I'm trying to model an actuator in Simulink based transfer functions previously derived. One of functions is $$\omega_p=G_2(K_cG_1V_c-c)$$ where $$G_1=\frac{K_e}{\tau_es+1}$$ $$G_2=\frac{1}{c+...
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1answer
41 views

Closed loop compensator

What does it mean if you've been told to design a compensator to ensure that the closed loop phase margin is at least 120 degrees? Isn't a compensator typically designed using the open loop transfer ...
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1answer
95 views

Is using a 4x4 bolted to the face of 2x12 enough?

I am working on a project that has three 2x12’s supporting a load of 12,000 lbs. similar, but not exactly, to how joists support a house. The 2x12’s are supporting about 6,000 lbs. on each end. The ...
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59 views

Changing the quality of the transient process in a nonlinear system (Part II)

My question is a continuation of the topic. https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3910814/changing-the-quality-of-the-transient-process-in-a-nonlinear-system-in-mathemat Unfortunately, last time I ...
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41 views

control block diagram design

I have a pump [m^3/(sV)], a tank [no units], a valve [m^2/s] and a level sensor [m/V]. The units are for the gains in the respective transfer functions. How should i connect my control block? Where ...
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45 views

Covariance of an uncertain vector going through an uncertain rotation

I have a vector $\omega$ and it associated covariance, a rotation $\mathbf R$ and its associated covariance. What is the covariance of $\mathbf R \cdot \omega$ ? More rigorously: I have an estimation ...
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40 views

Laplace transform and output of affine systems in Simulink

I have a system $h$ which takes as input $u(t)$ and outputs $y(t)$. It is known that the relation between $y(t)$ and $u(t)$ is affine (i.e. $y(t) = h(u(t)) = a u(t) + b$). Apply Laplace's transform to ...
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39 views

What voltage are these hydraulic valves and how to I control them?

I am building a new control system for an injection moulding machine, the last part I am trying to work out is the main pump. It has two proportional valves on the output, one labelled throttle valve ...
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72 views

Is there any application of control engineering to the study of algorithms stability or computer science theory?

I am an undergraduate student in Electrical and Computer engineering. In our 5th semester we have a obligatory "Introduction to control systems course". I was wondering if these bunch of ...
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Regarding Question On Control System Engineering [closed]

Transfer function= 400/(s^2 + 12s + 396) Calculate rise time, settling time, peak time, overshoot, undershoot
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93 views

Feedback loop and zero - error in steady state

I need help with this exercise. I 've tried many times with pen and paper but I'm stuck. I don't want a full answer but some feedback . Here is my progess: $$\frac{dx}{dt} = Ax(t) + Bu(t) \Rightarrow ...
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46 views

Changing the quality of the transient process in a nonlinear system (in Mathematica)

I urgently need advice and help. I have a system of differential equations like this: $\begin{cases} \frac{dx}{dt} = y[t] \cdot \alpha \cdot sin(\omega t) + \frac{d}{dt}(\alpha \cdot sin(\omega t)) ...
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60 views

Numeric quadrature vs summation of running costs in model predictive control

Usually, an MPC consists of discretizing the optimal control problem in time using some numerical quadrature scheme. So the infinite-dimensional OCP reads $$\begin{aligned}J(\vec{u}) &= \varphi\...
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71 views

How do I interpret states in the MATLAB System Identification Toolbox?

I am using the MATLAB System Identification Toolbox to estimate a 3rd order state space plant model. More precisely, the plant is a car with an Arduino mounted on it. The car takes in a PWM duty cycle ...
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32 views

How to get this hydraulic system working and help identifying parts and their function

I have recently acquired a 1982 Arburg 220-90-350 injection moulding machine, mainly just as a hobby to further my knowledge on injection moulding machines and control systems as I plan to modernise ...
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40 views

Discrete measurement - continuous observer design

I have to design a controller for the above system where the two pulse generators (red blocks ) are synchronized (measurements are only available at discrete points). However, my understanding is that ...
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1answer
81 views

Tuning Feedforward + PID Controller just with Feedforward Data

Hello there, hope you are all doing well. Right now I am trying to design a Feedforward + PID Controller for KUKA youBot on simulation. Since I do not have the equation of the system, I am trying to ...
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1answer
31 views

Fixed end points optimal control problem

Given two points $(t_0,x(t_0)=x^{0})$ and $(t_1,x(t_1)=x^{1})$ in the $(t,x)$ plane, the objective is to find an optimal trajectory $x^{*}(t)$ such that the cost function \begin{equation}\label{eq:1} ...
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1answer
106 views

Transfer function into block diagram and matrix form

I'm reading a book on Control System Design and running into the same issue I had in Kinematic Design. When things are presented in a format without any numerical examples it just appears as gibberish ...
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103 views

Shouldn't linear time-invariant systems be called affine time-invariant systems instead?

For a scalar $c$, the function: $$f(x) = cx$$ Is linear in that it satisfies the superposition property. If: $$f(x_1)=cx_1$$ $$f(x_2)=cx_2$$ Then: $$\alpha f(x_1) + \beta f(x_2) = \alpha(cx_1)+\beta(...
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1answer
49 views

Precision of a steeper motor and gears vs multiple motors

We are a student team trying to design a low cost CNC plasma cutting machine. The CNC will be a table with two rails and a bridge moving on them in which the head of the plasma torch will be. Now we ...
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3answers
266 views

Mechanism for controlling the clamping force

I am working on upgrading a research project on wind energy. They are trying to measure the performance of wind blade designs in a small wind tunnel (i.e. their models are relatively small). What they ...
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1answer
68 views

Is there a concept of gain and phase margin for a strictly open-loop transfer function?

I'm new to control systems, and I'm attempting to analyze the stability of an open-loop transfer function. I know that by checking the locations of the poles (and ensuring all poles are in the LHP) I ...
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1answer
102 views

How can I get final value of $V_{out}$ at $t=∞$ in RC circuit?

I can obtain the transfer function in this RC circuit. $$ \frac{V_{out}}{V_{in}} = \frac{1}{(RCs+1)} $$ When $V_{in}$ is set to $10V$, how can I get final value of $V_{out}$ at $t=∞$? I tried to use ...
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89 views

On servo loops bandwidth and tracking

Referring to article https://www.controldesign.com/articles/2018/servo-terminology-makes-a-difference/ I was unable to understand how loop gain influences the noise rejection and tracking. Taking ...
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1answer
57 views

Temperature controller using pt-1000 sensor

I need to control the temperature of a system with high accuracy with error value of $0.1$ degrees celsius +-. I will be using temperature sensor PT-1000. I need to know what would be the best option ...
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38 views

what is the name of this wheel found in toys which rotates freely?

I have tried doing search by image on few popular Internet search engines but could not get it. (sorry, it picked up lot of dust and a bit ugly to see). I want to know the name of such wheel and where ...
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1answer
19 views

Derivation of 2nd order damped rise time

Given the transfer function: $$\frac{\omega_0}{s^2 + 2\omega_0\zeta s + \omega_0^2}$$ How would you derive the rise time of the system from 0% SS to 100% SS. $$t_r = \frac{\pi - \arccos{\frac{1}{\zeta}...
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2answers
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Does it make sense to have a pressure and flow controller on a single closed line?

I have seen P&IDs in which a single line has both a pressure and flow control valve. Based on my understanding of Bernoulli's equation however this doesn't make sense to me - because ultimately ...
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1answer
81 views

Differential Equation for: Locking a laser's frequency with a PI controller

I think I have a good understanding of differential equations, so I would like to first try to understand my system in terms of differential equations before transforming my system into the more ...
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40 views

Advice wanted on time to digital converters for speed of sound in fluids

I'm using the speed of sound to analyze the composition of aqueous solutions with sound velocities between around 1000 and 1400 meters per second. It's a process control application with continuous ...
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44 views

Research of transients in nonlinear systems with linear dynamic links

I am having difficulties of this nature. There is a nonlinear system of the following type: I need to analyze analytically the transient process in such a system. The analytical study of the ...
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1answer
23 views

How to find the 'reaction speed' required in a valve for a certain application

I know this is answerable but I'm not sure I know where to start: You have a pump (constant volume flow) supplying the primary side of a heat exchanger with hot water (flow). The temperature of the ...

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