# Questions tagged [control-engineering]

Questions about the models and theories of control engineering and the application of control theory to design systems with desired behaviors.

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### I need transfer function for the given diagram [closed]

I am unable to calculate the transfer function. I need assistance to solve the transfer function in a systematic order so I can understand the answer. Thanks
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### Phase margin by definition

I'm reading about Gain Margin and Phase Margin in a book and having trouble understanding why they calculate the Phase margin like this: <G(Wcrossover) - (-180) = PM Why not: <G(Wcrossover) - (...
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### Optimizing error for PID based control of Line Following Robot

I am working to find the optimal PID gains of my line following robot. To do this, I need to optimize any performance index dependent on the error (a typical example is the integral absolute error). ...
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### Lyaponuv stability condition of linear systems for homogenous P in V(x) = x^T P x

I am currently learning about using Lyaponuv functions to find Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) as conditions for stability of a linear time invariant system. i.e. $$\dot{x}(t) = Ax(t)$$ is stable ...
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### Issue with LQR Q matrix for a cart-pendulum model

I am currently trying to develop a controller using LQR for a Segway. The model that I am using is an inverted pendulum on a massless cart. I have made animations of the uncontrolled pendulum and of ...
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### Dividing torque of one axle to three in varying proportions [closed]

I want to power a small mechanical monstrosity, which performs three tasks that require three separate axles. For the powering, there's a hand-operated crankshaft connected to the primary axle that ...
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### What type of electrical machine component for counting time?

I am looking for the proper piece of hardware to do what I'm looking for on my current prototype machine build. I want a timer to begin counting upwards in seconds when a switch is activated, and ...
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### Demonstration of Controlability and Observability

After I studied my Control Engineering courses some years ago, although I was able to interpret the results obtained after calculating the observability and controllability, I haven't been able to ...
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### Robustness to Additive Uncertainty Proof using small gain theorem

I am trying to use the small-gain theorem to prove the robust stability condition for additive uncertainty. I have been stuck on it for a while now. Question: How can I use the small-gain theorem to ...
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### State space representation of a product of transfer functions?

In short, I suppose the question boils down to: If we are asked to find the state space representation of $C(s) \cdot G(s)$, where C(s) and G(s) are both transfer functions, then do we treat them as ...
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### Relationship and interpretation of "discrete" and "continuous" covariance matrices in Kalman Filtering

I am quite confused about the interpretations/implementation of the system and measurement noise covariance matrices for the continuous and discrete time Kalman Filter. What I want is to initialize ...
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### Controller to maintain a stable amplitude

I am recording a channel before and after injecting current into that channel. I control the current injection using a switch, when the switch is on current goes to the channel, when the switch is off ...
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### Systematic approach to design a controller

I have four different plant systems which I want to control. They are similar in some aspects (equal inputs and outputs as well as disturbances, all are thermodynamical systems). Furthermore, none of ...
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### Increasing convergence rate using Optimal Control and Pontryagin Maximum Principle

My question is in addition to Tuning the optimal control synthesized according to the Pontryagin maximum/minimum principle and choosing the cost function, but requires help from the mathematical side ...
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### Control Partitioning in presence of external disturbance force

I am simulating the dynamics of a control system that has been designed using the control partitioning technique (model-based control + servo control). I am having a query for the case when an ...
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### What are some techniques for improving stabilization given a mechanical time constant?

Problem: I have a self-stabilizing system that utilizes an intertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the hull of a vessel. The system self stabilizes by performing matrix rotations based on the ...
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