Questions tagged [control-engineering]

Questions about the models and theories of control engineering and the application of control theory to design systems with desired behaviors.

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48 views

Is there any other controller than PID Controller?

I have been given a Project to search for a controller having better transient response than PID Controller. I searched but I didn't find any research paper on it. All are talking about improving PID'...
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25 views

Solution to autonomous differential equation with locally lipschitz function

As I was learning about the following theorem and its proof from the book Nonlinear Systems by H. K. Khalil, I encountered a difficulty in grasping some parts of the proof. Theorem: Consider the ...
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Nyquist Plot for the exponential term involved in the equation

I have been trying to solve the part b of this question which was in one of my assignments. I am not able to arrive at the closer values to plot my Nyquist plot. Any help is appreciated.
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Calculate propeller's thrust & torque coefficient for a quadcopter brushless motor

I'm building a quadcopter and I need to know how to calculate the thrust and torque coefficient, $F = bw^2$ and $T = cw^2$ I need to get the $b$ and $c$ (but don't know how to). I'm using 1045 ...
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58 views

Can someone explain how the output of this control system is derived?

I understand equation (1), but I really don't see the connection between equation (2) and the picture. For starters, shouldn't the $b_0$ constant be multiplied by $$net(n)-(a_1 \cdot net(n - 1) + a_2 \...
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2answers
43 views

Definition of a 'manipulated variable' in process control - what is a manipulated variable exactly?

I've gathered a lot of different details online - trying to understand exactly what they mean by 'manipulated variable'. So I only decided to finally ask about it here. In one source - eg. at this ...
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1answer
37 views

How to decrease Nitrogen gas consumption in Iron & Steel Plant? [closed]

I need to decrease nitrogen gas consumption in iron & steel plant. Currently it's not possible to measure every dot from steel mill to determine real usage so they use what air separation unit ...
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1answer
65 views

Adapting PID controller parameters using expert rules

I use the following equation to calculate a control signal of a time-discrete PID controller: $$ u(k) = u(k-1) + K_{R} \cdot \left(1+ \frac{T_{0}}{2 \cdot T_{I} }+ \frac{T_{D}}{T_{0}}\right) \cdot e(k)...
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54 views

Gain and Phase Margins from Bode Plot

What's the interpretation of the margins when the curve of magnitude never crosses 0 dB or the phase curve never crosses the -180º? For example: $$G(s) = \frac{s+20}{(s+1)(s+7)(s+50)}$$ I know that ...
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44 views

Nyquist Stability Theorem and Clockwise/Counter Clockwise Encirclements

According to argument principle, if a contour encircles a number of poles and zeros of a transfer function, the number of origin encirclements can be deduced by : ...
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boiler superheater transfer function

I am about to doing a project on "control of boiler super-heater temperature with fuzzy logic type-2". My very big problem is that I can not find the Transfer function of the plant (I mean ...
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A clarifying question on Lasalle invariance principle

Given a nonlinear system \begin{equation} \dot{x}=f(x),~x(0)=x_0 \tag{1} \end{equation} where $f\in{\mathcal{C}^{1}}:D\to\mathbb{R}^{n}$. The Lasalle invariance theorem statement goes as follows: Let $...
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Monitoring Connectivity on ZigBee

I am trying to figure out some ways in which a ZigBee network can be monitored. As is the case in any network, here we have a central coordinator and several slaves joined, however, there seems to be ...
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2answers
46 views

controllability matrix of a state space system - determinant

For state space systems, there is a test for 'controllability' involving finding the determinant of a 'controllability' matrix. The instructions for the test is typically to see if the determinant is ...
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34 views

Why does my motor model match the actual data in transient but not steady state response?

I have created a model of a DC Servo motor using electromechanical system modeling. I simulated the motor in Simulink (MATLAB) and compared the data with data obtained from a real motor having similar ...
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1answer
43 views

Limitations of LTI systems & control

I'm trying to think of limitations or disadvantages of LTI systems in control theory, however, I can't think of many. The only one I can think of is that not every system is an LTI system. Linear time-...
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1answer
68 views

designing compensator with certain specification

Ηere is an open-loop transfer function and specifications for compensator design. I defined the required poles and defined the angles according to the normal procedure of the root locus method and ...
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Is the viscous friction coefficient of a BLDC motor dependent on the system inertia?

I have to model the required torque to move a system composed of several mechanical parts such that this system performs a motion profile. It is a Maxon drive composed of an ECX Speed 16L BLDC micro-...
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3answers
55 views

Bandwidth vs Capacity

Two questions on wireless transmission, packed into one. First: I am confused about the meaning of the term 'Bandwidth' in a wireless transmission environment. The two most common definitions I could ...
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1answer
63 views

Zeroing a ventilator's volume measurement in the face of drifty sensors

I'm a software engineer working with http://respira.works to build an open-source ventilator for COVID-19. Notably, I'm not a controls person or a hardware person, so please forgive me. Background ...
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1answer
42 views

Why is there a delta for locally stable in the sense of lyapunov?

Why does this definition (screenshotted above) for locally stable i.s.L. require a $\delta$ term? Why not just say, something is locally stable i.s.L. if "for any ball of size $\epsilon$ around the ...
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188 views

What are these rotary to linear movements called?

I’d like to know what the below movement mechanisms are called so I can better research them and incorporate them into my own designs. They are both quite similar, they are from rotary electrical ...
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2answers
57 views

Control of a nonlinear static MIMO System

I am currently writing my master thesis and trying to design a controller for my system. However, the system is somewhat unconventional. It has a large number of inputs and outputs, is static, non-...
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2answers
57 views

What is the easiest way to regulate the speed of a falling object?

I want to design a system that allows a 1kg metal brick to fall under gravity at variable speeds. The brick initial position is 20cm above a flat table. I want to have control on the duration (to ...
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1answer
71 views

Help understanding a control system represented by coefficients of theta?

I've been working with control systems and transfer functions recently, but I've come across a format that I haven't seen before using coefficients of theta, and I can't find any information about it. ...
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Optimal Control Singular Arcs

This is about linear time-invariant, stationary problems. According to Donald Kirk's book Optimal Control Theory, for minimum-fuel problems on page 299, I was told that if there exists a singular arc,...
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34 views

Skew-Symmetric Gain Matrix to Encourage Exploration

I am reading a paper on controls and it has the following snippet: We propose to use the control law $$u_i = K(CV_i − p_i)$$ , where K is a (potentially time-varying) uniformly positive definite ...
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1answer
38 views

What is Dissipitative Control?

I am reading an article that says: stabilize the multi-vehicle system to one of its local minima via dissipative control And other that deals with dissipative system: (PID) controllers is ...
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1answer
59 views

How to find the transfer function of a control system?

I have a linear control system defined by the following equations: \begin{array}{l}\dot{x}_{1}(t)=-\frac{1}{2}\left(x_{1}(t)-x_{2}(t)\right) \\ \dot{x}_{2}(t)=\frac{1}{10}\left(2 x_{2}(t)-10 x_{1}(t)\...
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54 views

Converting nonlinear system into equivalent nonlinear of the Byrnes-Isidori normal form

I have a nonlinear system (Ball & Beam) which is described by the following equations of motion: $$ \ddot{y} + \frac{mg}{a} \sin(θ) -\frac{m}{a}y\dot{θ}^2 = 0 $$ $$ \ddot{θ} + \frac{2m}{b}y\dot{...
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42 views

Lyapunon candidate function to derive parameters estimation law

I have a system and a reference model represented in state space in the following form: \begin{gather} \dot{x} = Ax+Bu \\\ u = \hat{K}(t)x+\hat{k}_r(t)r \\\ \\ A_m = A+BK \\\ Bk_r = B_m \\\ K,k_r : \...
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What does “Coupling Effect” refer to in MIMO systems?

Here is the block diagram of the system. G11 relates the input R1 to the output Y1, G12 relates the input R1 to the output Y2 similarly for R2. What is the effect of coupling-which is as I know is ...
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1answer
66 views

Input-output representation to state space

How do you create a state space representation of the following input/output equation: $$ \dot{y} = -ky + u + a\sin(ωt) $$ where the parameters $k$, $a$, and $ω$ are unknown. The end goal is to ...
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33 views

maintenance of steady flow through pressure or mass flow

let's say I have two points in a line, A and B. Between them there is a valve that can regulate the amount of the stream from A to B. Considering that there is a steady flow of the stream between A ...
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81 views

Root Locus and Routh–Hurwitz stability criterion

A satellite launcher has a unit feedback system, whose TF global open loop is given by: $$G_c(s)G(s) = \frac{K(s^2-4s+18)(s+2)}{(s^2-2)(s+12)} $$ a) Draw the root locus for this function b) ...
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1answer
50 views

Generating Linear Velocity Movement?

In preparation for a Fluid Mechanics experiment, I am looking for a simple commercial ready made apparatus to generate a linear velocity trend to prove a new theory: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/...
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3answers
95 views

Determine the gain K from a root locus

I'm studying Root Locus method and I still confused. The question below exemplifiques my doubt. Determine the $K$ gain so that the dominant roots have a damping factor equal to $0.5$, where $$G(s) =...
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1answer
64 views

Physical interpretation of a Bode plot

I have a few questions regarding the physical interpretation of the information presented on a Bode plot. I believe it is one of those cases where I "don't know what I don't know", so please bear with ...
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23 views

How to create a Complementary Filter for a linearly accelerating vehicle to obtain estimate of orientation in quaternion?

A complementary filter (CF) uses orientation obtained calculated from gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer to find a more accurate measurement of orientation. However, when my sensor is ...
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Where can i get the aerodynamic data of aircrafts for controller design and testing?

I have some research papers on aircraft controller design that i want to simulate, but no system data is given in the research paper itself. I am also unable to find the aerodynamic data for any ...
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Mathematical transformation of a heading angle to a roll angle

I'm trying to understand a function in a SIMULINK example of a path following UAV simulation. The gist is that, the UAV Waypoint Follower block provides a required heading from a list of waypoints and ...
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1answer
66 views

Passivity in State Space Systems

Suppose I have the state space system $a\dot{x} = -x + \frac{1}{k}h(x) + u$, and output $y = h(x)$, where $a,k > 0$. The only information I'm given about $h(x)$ is that $h\in[0,k]$. I want to show ...
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1answer
39 views

Bounds to prove exponential stablity for given Lyapunov function

Problem 3.6 in Khalil's Nonlinear Control: Use given Lypunov candidate function to prove that the origin is exponentially stable. The system is $$\dot{x}=\begin{bmatrix}x_2\\-h(x_1)-2x_2\end{bmatrix},...
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avoidance with LQR

I'm interested in using linear quadratic regulators (LQR) to model prey avoidance behaviors. I want to adapt the LQR algorithm to incorporate dynamics and state costs that maximize the distance from a ...
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1answer
44 views

Modeling the torque of a real motor

I am trying to control a real inverted pendulum by means of a DC motor, for this I must model the torque of the motor, the work I've done in this direction is the following (which I believe is right): ...
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2answers
86 views

How to obtain transfer function of control diagram with Internal Model Control?

I want to design a robust control system using the internal model design specifications. The block diagram is the one shown below: I am trying to obtain the transfer function $\ \frac{Y(s)}{R(s)} $ ...
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Evaluate “damping” of higher-order transfer function - something similar to settling time without the discontinuities

I have an 11th order transfer function in the continuous domain (simplified linearized model of a grid-forming converter) and I'm looking for a way to characterize it with a single number for ...
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1answer
65 views

Find the transfer function of a basic block diagram

I'm new to Control Systems. I've been given this block diagram and I would like to find the overall transfer function. How can I do it? I was thinking about simplifying the diagram by placing in ...
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73 views

How many kWh this turbine would generate?

My grandfather and I are running some experiments down the river, however we don't have expertise in engineering so I bring up this question to the community and hope someone could help. How many kWh ...
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1answer
26 views

Noise sensitivity transfer function

Consider we have a second order system (plant) described by the following transfer function: $$ P(s) = \frac{b_0}{s^2+a_1*s+a_2} $$ which is controller by a PD-controller: $$ C(s) = K_p+K_ds $$ ...

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