Questions tagged [control-engineering]

Questions about the models and theories of control engineering and the application of control theory to design systems with desired behaviors.

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52 views

How to tune a PID controller when plant's step response looks like a ramp?

The system is a boat and I want to specify a yaw angle and the PID controller would operate the rudder of the boat in order to reach the desired yaw angle. So, the step response of the plant (boat) ...
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25 views

What is residual oscillation and critically damped oscillation in the context of a controller's performance?

What do these terminology "residual oscillation" and "critically damped oscillation" mean when evaluate a controller's performance? How are they related to the stability of the ...
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1answer
77 views

Differential Equation for: Locking a laser's frequency with a PI controller

I think I have a good understanding of differential equations, so I would like to first try to understand my system in terms of differential equations before transforming my system into the more ...
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1answer
33 views

Excluding the transient in computing RMSE in control algorithm implementation

I have implemented a control algorithm and I would like to study its performance by looking at the trend of the tracking error and then algebraically transpose what I visualize, I have thought to use ...
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23 views

How to determine time constant/cutoff frequency of the filters in the controlled loop

I was told to be careful to use filters in the control loops as it will add extra time delays in the system and degrade the system dynamic response, but I also saw there are lots of filters in ...
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1answer
71 views

Steady-state tracking error has to equal zero, what values do I need?

A block is used to model instruments with limited capabilities to provide inputs to the plant. A seen below: The output of the block 𝑢𝑎 is related to the input 𝑢 with the following input-output ...
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1answer
64 views

What is the difference between control systems and artificial intelligence in the robotic context?

I am confused learning the difference between control systems and artificial intelligence? since both techniques can be used for automation Please kindly try to give answer in nutshell, depth or ...
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1answer
154 views

I have a problem with my representation of roll in Simulink

I am currently an engineering student and a member of the aerospace club of my engineering school (ESILV) which is called LéoFly. We’re a team of 12 students and are building a Fusex (...
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2answers
54 views

How could I verify the stability of a real system with non-linearities?

For a closed loop system, I could do the stability margin analysis using linear method like bode diagram, but in reality there are non-linear elements in the system like saturation/rate limits inside ...
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386 views

On a Diesel/hydraulic DMU train what exactly does the “go faster” lever control?

Let's say that you are driving a Diesel Multiple Unit† with either mechanical* (i.e. an actual gearbox with multiple ratios) or hydraulic (i.e. two or more torque converters) transmission. When you ...
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1answer
75 views

PID Control: Is adding a delay before the next loop a good idea?

I am implementing PID control in C++ to make a differential drive robot turn an accurate number of degrees, but I am having many issues. Exiting control loop early due to fast loop runtime If the ...
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134 views

Finding coefficients for a PID controller that minimize the integral of the squared error (ISE)

The problem The problem is to find the coefficients for the P, I and D terms of a PID controller used to regulate the object that minimize the the integral of the squared error (ISE): $$Q = \int_0^\...
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33 views

Control System Response

How does one find the zeta value or the frequency of an over damped response curve. I am used to determining things by using the log-decrement equation. Does that apply here even though there is no ...
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1answer
50 views

Could someone explain how a compensator shifts the root locus?

I'm reading a root-locus course note from MIT. However, I can't understand this part: How does adding a compensator with a pole at origin remove the plant pole on the right half-plane into the left ...
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1answer
46 views

Drawing nyquist diagram by hand for a system with time delay

how can I draw the Nyquist diagram of Kexp(-Ts)/(s*(s^2+s+a) by hand for different a and K values and examine the stability of the system depending on T value? I drew for the case with no time delay ...
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29 views

Sliding-mode control is a model-based technique?

The sliding mode control can be considered a model-based control? In my opinion yes since takes the information of the mathematical model of the system to be controlled handling with possible ...
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2answers
192 views

Second Order Transfer Function Question regarding Overshoot Formula

If I have a closed loop second order transfer function such as: $$T(s) = \frac{10-s}{0.3s^2+3.1s+(1+24K_{c})}$$ Can I still use this formula for overshoot (when a step input is applied) ?: $$\frac{A}...
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60 views

Controls System experiment

We performed an experiment in which we turned a bicycle on its side and placed a piece of green tap on one of the spokes. We spun the wheel and recorded the wheel spinning until it came to a complete ...
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4answers
1k views

Speed estimation with absolute encoder

I have an absolute value encoder with 14-bit resolution and want to implement a speed controller. For high speeds, the offset between the old and the new position value is large and so the accuracy of ...
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2answers
123 views

Activating lights using a motion sensor?

I was wondering how I would configure some sort of setup to get lights like this turn on a timer once activated by a motion sensor. I want them to turn on for about 15 seconds and then turn off once ...
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23 views

What is the original paper using Extended Kalman Filter for joint state and parameter estimation [closed]

The title says it all. I would like to know which was the first paper to apply the Extended Kalman Filter to jointly estimate the state plus some parameter of the system. (by extending the system ...
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1answer
41 views

Can I design/tune the outer loop controller without knowing the details of the inner loop controller?

In cascade PID control loops as below, can I make an assumption that the inner loop will respond much faster than the outer loop, hence I could simplify U1_CMD as U1 and I could design/tune the gains ...
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1answer
81 views

Generating Linear Velocity Movement?

In preparation for a Fluid Mechanics experiment, I am looking for a simple commercial ready made apparatus to generate a linear velocity trend to prove a new theory: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/...
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36 views

Stability from Gain and Phase Margin

I know that a system with positive gain and phase margin is a stable system. And the one with a negative gain and phase margin is unstable. What will a system with negative phase margin and positive ...
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1answer
48 views

Is It Possible to Have a Continuous-Time System Controllable but Discrete-Time System Uncontrollable?

I have a continuous-time state-space system $\dot{x} = Ax + Bu$ with $A = \begin{bmatrix}0 & 0 & 0 & 1.0000 & 0 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 1.0000 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 &...
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1answer
1k views

Design of a lead compensator with root locus in matlab

For the transfer function $G(s)$, I tried to design a lead compensator for the function to have a response to the step with the following specifications: $$\%OS = 10\% \ \rightarrow \ Overshoot $$ $$ ...
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20 views

Is it possible to calculate Over Shoot percentage and settling time of an Underdamped 2nd order system with Ramp input?

Most of the books derive Over Shoot percentage, settling time for 2nd order underdamped it for unit step response. Do these parameters exist for 2nd order underdamped system for Ramp response too? If ...
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1answer
137 views

Control system for a temperature controller

I have adapted a refrigerator to create a temperature controlled environment for brewing beer. I have mounted an electric heater coil inside the fridge and configured a basic controller to maintain a ...
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1answer
59 views

LQR control of motor speed for a quadrotor

Im working around with a simulation of a quadrotor. So i've read articles, did the math to derive the set of equation using lagrangian approach. So far so good. Then i want to control the system. so i ...
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1answer
105 views

How to tune PID for a step response

I am very much confused finding the time constant and DC gain for the below step response. The idea is to find PI gains for speed control and I am following this tutorial online Tutorial Link Motor ...
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1answer
288 views

Find the point where locus crosses the damping ratio line?

Given a transfer function, find the point where locus crosses the damping ratio of 0.5? $$G(s)= \dfrac{K(s-2)(s-4)}{s^2+6s+25}$$ The textbook only shows this solved by Matlab or program, I would like ...
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1answer
105 views

Passivity in State Space Systems

Suppose I have the state space system $a\dot{x} = -x + \frac{1}{k}h(x) + u$, and output $y = h(x)$, where $a,k > 0$. The only information I'm given about $h(x)$ is that $h\in[0,k]$. I want to show ...
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1answer
78 views

Significance of asymptotes in root locus

What is the significance of asymptotes in the root locus of a linear time invariant system. Does it say that for that particular pole on which it is starting doesn't have a practical pole in the ...
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1answer
74 views

Criterion to neglect poles of higher order

If I am having a fifth order system, it is said that the dominant two poles nearer to the jw axis determine the nature of the output, is there any criterion to neglect the other three poles , should ...
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3answers
92 views
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1answer
36 views

Evaluate "damping" of higher-order transfer function - something similar to settling time without the discontinuities

I have an 11th order transfer function in the continuous domain (simplified linearized model of a grid-forming converter) and I'm looking for a way to characterize it with a single number for ...
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0answers
33 views

Examples of model-based control techniques

I am trying to find out the differences between the model-based control approach and the data-driven one. Surely the main difference is the latter's independence from the information of the ...
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1answer
85 views

How can I tune the parameters of a lqr controller?

From my internet research, it seems there's no systematic way of tuning the design parameters for the LQR controller. I have found Bryson’s rule as an initialization. However I don't know how to ...
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3answers
186 views

Need some advice, control system animation. Appreciate some help!

I would like to have a 3d simulation of a helicopter landing on a ship. I thought about using matlab for this, as a far as I know you can connect models from Simulink to virtual worlds using blocks, ...
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1answer
56 views

Why matlab returns a damp ratio as 1 for a over damped system?

I have a second order system with the transfer function as: "1/(s^2 + 5.45s + 1)", I thought it should be an over-damped system, but when I use the damp function in MatLab, it returns the ...
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1answer
37 views

Nominal model and Mathematical model of a real plant [closed]

What is the difference between nominal model and mathematical model of a real plant? I am interested in understanding the difference since I want to understand why in some cases is not the best idea ...
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2answers
25 views

Force control of pneumatic piston

I am building a small testing device consisting of a double acting pneumatic cylinder. I am using an existing pneumatic line running at 100 psi and I would like to control the force exerted by the ...
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0answers
41 views

PI or PID-regulator for control system with hysteresis relay in inner loop

I have such control system (sorry for rough drawing :) ) $G(s)$ - stable object with proper transfer function. $1/s$ - integrator. I need to clarify, how synthesized PI or PID controller for such ...
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1answer
32 views

why do we need state feedback in H-infinity concept instead of output feedback

I have faced control of a flexible manipulator which have a zero dynamic related to flexible parts dynamic. the zero dynamic states (generalized states) are not observable in input-output dynamic and ...
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1answer
33 views

Full state feedback of a closed loop system

Does Full state feedback gains affect the dynamic or steady state gain of a closed loop system?
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1answer
496 views

Fluid dynamics of non interacting tanks in series

I have a system like this: and I have to estimate the height of the lower tank. First of all, I'm considering that I have a non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow. Base apertures The ...
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1answer
95 views

Is using a 4x4 bolted to the face of 2x12 enough?

I am working on a project that has three 2x12’s supporting a load of 12,000 lbs. similar, but not exactly, to how joists support a house. The 2x12’s are supporting about 6,000 lbs. on each end. The ...
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1answer
116 views

simulation of an attitude optimal Backstepping controller based quaternion for a UAV in MATLAB

I'am trying to implement this open access research article Attitude Optimal Backstepping Controller Based Quaternion for a UAV I did not find the same result in this paper Can anyone tell me where my ...
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1answer
56 views

How to identify the time delay of manipulated variables which are important to the final quality of polymer product

In a polymer production process, there are a lot of manipulated variables(MV) such as temperature ,pressure , or level of reactor that affect the quality of my polymer product. However, it usually ...
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1answer
219 views

what's wrong with this robust control scheme?

I'm learning how to control a double integrator with $H_\infty$. my model is simply $$\begin{gather} \dot{r} = v \\ \dot{v} = F/m \\ r(t_0) = 0\text{ m}, $v(t_0) = 0\text{ m/s}, m = 1000\text{ kg} \...

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