Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is currently stunned by the fact that yesterday a span of a brand new (innaugurated in January) bicycle bridge along the coast collapsed when struck by a wave, killing some people that were on it at the time.
A few videos have surfaced:
- This one is of the moment it collapsed, but the man behind the camera didn't notice what happened until a few moments later, so you don't can't clearly see the wave impacting the structure, but you can see how the waves are redirected and slam against the structure almost vertically.
- This one is from after the collapse, but clearly shows the aftermath. At 2:15 you can see an example of another wave running up the rocks, spraying up higher than the road. At 2:30 you can see the columns (including their topping, where the beam was supported are in perfect condition and don't seem to present any damage.
- This article shows a video representation of what is believed to have happened: the waves lifted the beam off the pillars and caused a rigid-body rotation around its own axis. This, along with the mint condition of the tops of the columns implies that the project probably did not adopt a beam-column connection which could resist tension, which would therefore have impeded the beam's "liftoff".
Now, my actual question is: how does one calculate a structure to resist such a load? I've done some searching and have found some articles ([A] [B] [C] [D]) regarding wave action on bridges, but they all consider the more common case of a wave moving in a horizontal direction striking the side of a bridge. Now, how should one translate this to this case, with the wave being thrust (and possibly sped up) vertically?
Are there any codes which consider such cases? Also, more generally, are there any codes which define even standard wave action? International codes are fine. (I'm leaning a bit on Rick Teachey's position on the "recommendations/finding stuff" meta post for this part).